Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 293792, 11 pages
Research Article

German Spent Nuclear Fuel Legacy: Characteristics and High-Level Waste Management Issues

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany

Received 12 October 2012; Revised 2 December 2012; Accepted 6 December 2012

Academic Editor: Alejandro Clausse

Copyright © 2013 A. Schwenk-Ferrero. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Germany is phasing-out the utilization of nuclear energy until 2022. Currently, nine light water reactors of originally nineteen are still connected to the grid. All power plants generate high-level nuclear waste like spent uranium or mixed uranium-plutonium dioxide fuel which has to be properly managed. Moreover, vitrified high-level waste containing minor actinides, fission products, and traces of plutonium reprocessing loses produced by reprocessing facilities has to be disposed of. In the paper, the assessments of German spent fuel legacy (heavy metal content) and the nuclide composition of this inventory have been done. The methodology used applies advanced nuclear fuel cycle simulation techniques in order to reproduce the operation of the German nuclear power plants from 1969 till 2022. NFCSim code developed by LANL was adopted for this purpose. It was estimated that ~10,300 tonnes of unreprocessed nuclear spent fuel will be generated until the shut-down of the ultimate German reactor. This inventory will contain ~131 tonnes of plutonium, ~21 tonnes of minor actinides, and 440 tonnes of fission products. Apart from this, ca.215 tonnes of vitrified HLW will be present. As fission products and transuranium elements remain radioactive from 104 to 106 years, the characteristics of spent fuel legacy over this period are estimated, and their impacts on decay storage and final repository are discussed.