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Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations
Volume 2014, Article ID 890316, 7 pages
Research Article

Flow Boiling Heat Transfer Enhancement by Using ZnO-Water Nanofluids

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajasthan Technical University, Kota, Rajasthan 324010, India
2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302017, India

Received 31 May 2013; Accepted 11 November 2013; Published 2 February 2014

Academic Editor: Mohamed Awad

Copyright © 2014 Om Shankar Prajapati and Nirupam Rohatgi. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Nanofluids are liquid suspensions containing nanoparticles that are smaller than 100 nm. There is an increased interest in nanofluids as thermal conductivity of nanofluids is significantly higher than that of the base liquids. ZnO-water nanofluids with volume concentration of ZnO particles varying from 0.0001 to 0.1% were prepared using ultrasonic vibration mixer. Thermal conductivity of the ZnO-water fluids was investigated for different sonication time using thermal property analyzer (KD2 Pro). Thermal conductivity of nanofluids for a given concentration of nanoparticle varies with sonication time. Heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop in an annular test section with variable pressure (1–2.5 bar) and heat flux (0–400 kW/m2) at constant mass flux of 400 kg/m2s were studied for samples having maximum thermal conductivity. Surface roughness of the heating rod was also measured before and after the experimentation. The study shows that heat transfer coefficient increases beyond the base fluid with pressure and concentration of ZnO.