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Shock and Vibration
Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 3-8

Optimization of the G&H Bubble Model

Thomas L. Geers and Chung-Kyu Park

Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA

Received 22 March 2005; Revised 22 March 2005

Copyright © 2005 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A spherical model for the bubble created by an underwater explosion is enhanced to account, in approximate fashion, for the effect of bubble distortion on translation and dilation. The enhancement consists of introducing artificial drag in the form C|v|P , where ν is translation velocity, and C, P produce an optimum fit to empirical formulas for the second dilation maximum and first two translation jumps. The recommended values are C = 0.4 and P = 1 for charge weights between 100 lb–1000 lb and and depths exceeding 200 ft.