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Shock and Vibration
Volume 15 (2008), Issue 1, Pages 61-70

Analytical Predictions of Fragment Penetration through Hollow Concrete Masonry Units

David Bogosian1 and Bence Gerber2

1Karagozian & Case, 2550 N. Hollywood Way, Suite 500, Burbank, CA 91505, USA
2Century Dynamics, Inc., 1001 Galaxy Way, Suite 325, Concord, CA 94520, USA

Received 3 February 2005; Revised 27 December 2006

Copyright © 2008 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Modeling steel casing fragment impacts on hollow CMU poses some problems, since the fragments will typically penetrate through the front face and may also penetrate the back face. Techniques are needed for predicting (a) the size of the hole created by the penetration, (b) the size of the annular region of damaged concrete around the hole, and (c) the residual velocity of the fragment. A series of calculations using the AUTODYN code were performed to investigate the accuracy and reliability of the model. The model uses the smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) approach to represent the CMU. A variety of steel fragment sizes were projected at a layer of CMU, and the resulting hole size, damage, and fragment residual velocity were tabulated. Results were validated against existing empirical relationships to insure the model's applicability, while additional analyses demonstrated trends and parametric sensitivity.