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Shock and Vibration
Volume 2014, Article ID 294271, 21 pages
Review Article

Review of Response and Damage of Linear and Nonlinear Systems under Multiaxial Vibration

1Vehicle Technology Directorate, US Army Research Laboratory, APG, MD 21005, USA
2US Army Aberdeen Test and Center (ATC), APG, MD 21005, USA
3US Army Materiel System Activity Analysis (AMSAA), APG, MD 21005, USA
4US Army Research Office, Durham, NC 27709, USA
5Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division, Keyport, WA 98345, USA
6Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering (CALCE), University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA

Received 17 July 2013; Accepted 5 February 2014; Published 10 April 2014

Academic Editor: Nuno Maia

Copyright © 2014 Ed Habtour et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A review of past and recent developments in multiaxial excitation of linear and nonlinear structures is presented. The objective is to review some of the basic approaches used in the analytical and experimental methods for kinematic and dynamic analysis of flexible mechanical systems, and to identify future directions in this research area. In addition, comparison between uniaxial and multiaxial excitations and their impact on a structure’s life-cycles is provided. The importance of understanding failure mechanisms in complex structures has led to the development of a vast range of theoretical, numerical, and experimental techniques to address complex dynamical effects. Therefore, it is imperative to identify the failure mechanisms of structures through experimental and virtual failure assessment based on correctly identified dynamic loads. For that reason, techniques for mapping the dynamic loads to fatigue were provided. Future research areas in structural dynamics due to multiaxial excitation are identified as (i) effect of dynamic couplings, (ii) modal interaction, (iii) modal identification and experimental methods for flexible structures, and (iv) computational models for large deformation in response to multiaxial excitation.