Table 4: Parameters used in the numerical parametric study.

Parameters (m/kg1/3) (m) (kg) (m) (m)Steel ratio Axial load ratio

Benchmark case0.18–0.500500.60.60.130.35

Contrast cases0.15–0.901.85250, 5000.9, 1.20.9, 1.20.16, 0.190.50, 0.65

= /; and are the cross-sectional areas of steel tube and infill concrete, respectively.