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Translational Sports Medicine promotes all aspects of sports medicine by exploring the translational pathway between mechanistic research and conceptually novel insight into human exercise activities in relation to diagnosis, treatment, performance or prevention of diseases or sports injuries.
Chief Editor, Professor Michael Kjær, is the Head of the Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen. He researches the effect of exercise and physical activity on the body with a focus on sports injuries and what happens in the tissue when one gets injured.
Translational Sports Medicine was founded in 2018 and has been published by Hindawi as a fully open access journal since 2022 as part of a publishing collaboration with John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Content published prior to 2022 is hosted on the Wiley Online Library.
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Be Aware of the Benefits of Drafting in Sports and Take Your Advantage: A Meta-Analysis
Purpose. In competitive sports, optimizing performance is the key. An interesting venue to explore is to consider drafting as a pacing strategy. The purpose of this study is to identify the magnitude of drafting benefits for biomechanical, physiological, and psychobiological parameters in and between athletes in cycling, kayaking, running, skating, skiing, and swimming. Design. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods. Systematic searches were performed in PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases. Results. In total, 205 studies were found, from which 22 were relevant (including 232 participants and 548 observations). Methodological quality was high for all the included articles. The meta-analyses for all parameters indicated strong evidence for a benefit of drafting, with moderate effects between leading and drafting athletes found for the heart rate (3.9%), VO2 (8.9%), power output (11.3%), and rating of perceived exertion (10.4%). Large effect sizes were found for blood lactate (24.2%), VE (16.2%), and EMG (56.4%). A moderator analysis showed differences between sports on the effect of drafting with most benefits in cycling. Discussion. Based on the observed effects of drafting in the biomechanical, physiological, and psychobiological parameters, it can be considered as an element of pacing, a strategy to conserve energy and optimize performance. Conclusion. There is strong evidence that drafting benefits athletes, with varying levels of effect for athletes in different sports. Knowledge about the magnitude of benefits can be used to improve training sessions, race strategies, and performance in competition.
Cognitive Function among Young Women’s Football Players in the Summer Heat
Recently, there has been a growing focus on studies related to women’s football. However, the cognitive function of female football players has not been extensively characterized. Thus, we explored how the cognitive function of female football players was altered during a series of matches in summer and examined day-to-day variations in cognitive function with regard to dehydration status. Resting cognitive function was assessed from 17 young women football players during the Japan Club Youth Women’s football tournament, which spanned eight consecutive days. Cognitive function initially improved, with this improvement sustained throughout the tournament. It is worth noting that ten participants experienced symptoms of dehydration at least once during the tournament; however, these symptoms were not found to be linked to impaired cognitive function, suggesting that resting cognitive function remains unaffected during summer matches, even in the presence of dehydration symptoms.
Hemodynamic Response in Ascending Aorta Surgery Patients during Moderate Intensity Resistance Training
Background. In patients undergoing ascending aortic surgery (AAS), postsurgical physical exercise with a safe and effective exercise prescription is recommended. Resistance training is associated with blood pressure (BP) elevations that may increase the risk of new aortic dissection or rupture. However, the acute hemodynamic response to resistance training for this patient group is unknown. Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate peak systolic BP (SBP) increases in AAS patients during moderate intensity resistance training. Methods. SBP was measured continuously beat-to-beat with a noninvasive method during three sets of leg presses at moderate intensity. A 15-repetition maximum strength test was performed to estimate the maximal amount of resistance a participant could manage 15 times consecutively (equivalent to approximately 60–65% of their maximum strength). Results. The study had 48 participants in total, i.e., 24 cases and 24 controls. Both groups consisted of 10 females (42%) and 14 males (58%). The case group had a mean age of 60.0 (SD ± 11.9) years and a mean of 16.3 months since surgery (minimum 4.4 and maximum 39.6 months). 22 of the 24 cases received antihypertensive medication. The median baseline BP was 119/74 mmHg among cases and 120/73 mmHg among controls. During the first set of leg presses, the median peak SBP was 152 mmHg, in the second set 154 mmHg, and in the third set 165 mmHg. Corresponding values in controls were 170 mmHg, 181 mmHg, and 179 mmHg. The highest peak SBP registered in an AAS patient was 190 mmHg and in any healthy control was 287 mmHg. Conclusion. The findings indicate that AAS patients in control of their BP have the endurance to perform 3 sets of resistance training at moderate intensity as their SBP increases with a maximum of 39% from the baseline compared to the 51% increase in the control group.
Intra-Tester and Inter-Tester Reliability of the Lachmeter When Measuring Knee Joint Laxity
Knee injuries are common among all age groups, and clinical knee examination is essential for the prognosis, follow-up, and rehabilitation process. The Lachmeter is a newly developed digitized modification of the Rolimeter, making it easier and faster for the test personnel to read the test result. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the intra-tester and inter-tester reliability of the Lachmeter when testing healthy and traumatic knees. 24 healthy participants and a smaller sample of six ACL patients were examined with the Lachmeter by two intermediate testers and re-examined on a second visit within 21 days. All measurements were performed using two different grip techniques: a Lachman grip and an anterior drawer grip. Intra- and inter-tester reliability was evaluated using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), smallest detectable change (SDC), Student’s paired t-test, and Bland–Altman plots. The results showed in healthy subjects poor to good intra-tester reliability (ICC range: −0.28–0.87, SEM range: 0.33–1.14 mm, and SDC range: 0.91–3.17 mm) and inter-tester reliability (ICC range: 0.41–0.87, SEM range: 0.27–0.67 mm, and SDC range: 0.75–1.87 mm). In ACL patients, intra-tester reliability was moderate to excellent (ICC range: 0.53–0.94, SEM range: 0.14–0.88 mm, and SDC range: 0.38–2.44 mm), with the exception of one measurement (ICC: 0.26 95% CI [−3.43; 0.89]), whereas inter-tester reliability was overall good (ICC range: 0.61–0.89, SEM range: 0.29–0.71 mm, and SDC range: 0.79–1.97 mm). Reliability measures between grip techniques indicated that the Lachman grip was more reliable than the anterior drawer grip. In conclusion, the Lachmeter showed variation between reliability measures, ranging from poor to good in healthy subjects and moderate to excellent in ACL patients. Future studies are needed to validate the Lachmeter against a gold-standard knee laxity assessment.
Comparison of Traditional and Advanced Resistance Training Paradigms on Muscle Hypertrophy in Trained Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Trained individuals may require variations in training stimuli and advanced resistance training paradigms (ADV) to increase skeletal muscle hypertrophy. However, no meta-analysis has examined how ADV versus traditional (TRAD) approaches may differentially affect hypertrophic outcomes in trained populations. The aim of this review was to determine whether the skeletal muscle hypertrophy responses induced by TRAD differed from ADV in resistance-trained individuals. Furthermore, we sought to examine potential effects of dietary factors, participants’ training status, and training loads. We searched for peer-reviewed, randomized controlled trials (published in English) conducted in healthy resistance-trained adults performing a period of TRAD and ADV with pre-to-post measurement(s) of muscle hypertrophy in PubMed, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and MEDLINE databases up to October 2022. A formal meta-analysis was conducted in Revman5, and risk of bias was assessed by ROB2. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria. Results indicated no difference between ADV and TRAD for muscle thickness (SMD = 0.05, 95% CI: −0.20 0.29, = 0.70), lean mass (SMD = −0.01, 95% CI: −0.26 0.23, = 0.92), muscle cross-sectional area (SMD = −0.07, 95% CI: −0.36 0.22, = 0.64), or all measurements analyzed together (SMD = −0.00, 95% CI: −0.15 0.14, = 0.95). No heterogeneity or inconsistencies were observed; however, unclear risk of bias was present in most of the studies. Short-term ADV does not induce superior skeletal muscle hypertrophy responses when compared with TRAD in trained individuals. This review was not previously registered.
A Single Bout of High Heels Dancing Causes an Increase in Circulating Markers of Muscle Tissue Degradation and MMP-3 in Young Healthy Women
Prolonged wearing of high heels can cause chronic injury and inflammation. Herein, we investigated the presence of muscle injury, inflammation, and neutrophil function in young women after a single bout of stiletto dance class. Sixteen volunteers (23.4 ± 3.8 years; 61.7 ± 8.1 kg; 23.4 ± 2.3 kg/m2; and 27.2 ± 3.8% body fat) participated in the study. The plasma biomarkers matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3), muscle damage (myoglobin (Mb), total creatine kinase (CK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)), and inflammation (interleukin 8 (IL-8), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL]-1β, and IL-6) were quantified before and immediately after a single stiletto class (60 min) of moderate intensity. After class, our data showed that the plasma concentration of MMP-3, Mb, and CK increased by 56% (; d = 0.8), 113% (; d = 1.1), and 21% (; d = 0.4), respectively. Reactive oxygen species produced by neutrophils and the plasma concentration of IL-8, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were not affected under the study conditions. We concluded that a single bout of stiletto dance class caused muscle damage but did not alter the plasma concentration of proinflammatory cytokines. These findings are crucial in preventing the progress of chronic injuries that are often noted in dancers with synovitis and arthritis.