Performance Analysis in the Decode-and-Forward Full-Duplex Relaying Network with SWIPTRead the full article
The Scientific World Journal publishes original research, reviews, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in science, technology, and medicine.
The Scientific World Journal maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Cytotoxic, Cellular Antioxidant, and Antiglucuronidase Properties of the Ethanol Leaf Extract from Bulbine asphodeloides
Bulbine asphodeloides (L.) Spreng (Xanthorrhoeaceae family), popularly known in South Africa as “ibhucu” or “Balsamkopieva,” is a perennial plant traditionally used to treat skin diseases, including sunburns, rough skin, dressing burns, itches, and aging. The present study reports the cytotoxic, cellular antioxidant, and antiglucuronidase properties of the ethanol leaf extract from B. asphodeloides. The cytotoxic effect of the plant extract on human dermal fibroblast (MRHF) cells was evaluated by the bis-Benzamide H 33342 trihydrochloride/propidium iodide (Hoechst 33342/PI) dual-staining method. A validated biological cell-based assay was used to determine the cellular antioxidant activity of the extract. The antiglucuronidase and metal chelating activities were evaluated using standard in vitro methods. Lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced RAW 264.7 cell model was used to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of the plant extract, and the immune-modulatory activity was performed using RAW 264.7 cells. The extract demonstrated no cytotoxic effect towards the MRHF cells at all the tested concentrations. Furthermore, the extract also possessed significant cellular antioxidant and antiglucuronidase activities, but a weak effect of metal chelating activity in a dose-dependent manner. However, the extract showed no significant anti-inflammatory and immune-stimulatory activities. Overall, the results showed that B. asphodeloides may be a useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of skin diseases, therefore supporting its ethnomedicinal usage.
Drought Analysis in East Nusa Tenggara (Indonesia) Using Regional Frequency Analysis
Drought is a condition of a shortage of water that has an impact on economic activity. This research studies the severe drought area in Indonesia using Regional Frequency Analysis (RFA), based on daily precipitation data recorded at nine stations. The analysis reveals five homogeneous regions, based on discordancy and heterogeneity tests. Furthermore, the L-moment approach is applied to investigate the regional distribution and suggests that the Pearson type III distribution is the distribution that best fits the five regions. This distribution is also used to calculate the regional growth curve that is employed in the drought analysis. The drought return period analysis, for conditions of 40% of normal rainfall, concludes that the region containing the Fransiskus Xaverius, Gewayantana, and Mali stations has the highest drought risk, indicated by the fastest return period estimate of 2 years and 4 months. Moreover, the extreme drought analysis shows that two of the regions have the potential to experience the return of extreme drought, with less than 20% of normal rainfall, in less than four years.
Multitargeted Effects of Vitexin and Isovitexin on Diabetes Mellitus and Its Complications
Background. Till date, there is no known antidote to cure diabetes mellitus despite the discovery and development of diverse pharmacotherapeutic agents many years ago. Technological advancement in natural product chemistry has led to the isolation of analogs of vitexin and isovitexin found in diverse bioresources. These compounds have been extensively studied to explore their pharmacological relevance in diabetes mellitus. Aim of the Study. The present review was to compile results from in vitro and in vivo studies performed with vitexin and isovitexin derivatives relating to diabetes mellitus and its complications. A systematic online literature query was executed to collect all relevant articles published up to March 2020. Results. In this piece, we have collected data and presented it in a one-stop document to support the multitargeted mechanistic actions of vitexin and isovitexin in controlling diabetes mellitus and its complications. Conclusion. Data collected hint that vitexin and isovitexin work by targeting diverse pathophysiological and metabolic pathways and molecular drug points involved in the clinical manifestations of diabetes mellitus. This is expected to provide a deeper understanding of its actions and also serve as a catapult for clinical trials and application research.
Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C Viral Infection in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Background. Hepatitis C virus is a highly genetically heterogenous bloodborne pathogen that is responsible for acute and chronic hepatitis. Globally, an estimated 71 million population is chronically infected with this virus from which 399,000 people die every year. Its prevalence is high in Ethiopia and varies from region to region, even among different studies within a region. Methods. Electronic databases, including Science Direct, Medline, HINARI, African Journals Online, TRIP database, African Index Medicus, and Directory of Open Access Journals, searched from 2010 to 2020 and published articles were included. Due to evidence of considerable heterogeneity, the pooled prevalence of anti-HCV was analyzed using the random-effects model. The possible sources of heterogeneity were analyzed through subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and meta-regression. Funnel plots and Egger’s test statistics were used to determine the presence of publication bias. Results. The analysis of 56 articles showed that the prevalence of anti-HCV in Ethiopia ranged from 0% to 22%. The pooled prevalence estimated was 2% (95% CI 2.0–3.0), and the meta-regression statistics indicated that the diagnostic method , study group , and level of bias showed statistically significant association with the outcome variable. The sensitivity analysis claims no influence on the overall effect estimate while removing a single study from the analysis at a time. Egger’s test statistics declare the presence of publication bias that is handled using time and fill analysis. Conclusions. The pooled prevalence of anti-HCV in Ethiopia was high. Predictor variables, including the diagnostic method, study group, and level of bias, showed a statistically significant relationship with the outcome variable. Strengthening the scope of existing prevention and control programs and implementing novel approaches, including screen-and-treat, could significantly help to tackle this critical public health issue. The study provides a current estimate which is valuable for policymakers and other responsible bodies.
Comparative Utilization of Dead and Live Fungal Biomass for the Removal of Heavy Metal: A Concise Review
Human and industrial activities produce and discharge wastes containing heavy metals into the water resources making them polluted, threatening human health and the ecosystem. Biosorption, the process of passive cation binding by dead or living biomass, represents a potentially cost-effective way of eliminating toxic heavy metals from industrial wastewater. The abilities of microorganisms to remove metal ions in solution have been extensively studied; in particular, live and dead fungi have been recognized as a promising class of low-cost adsorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions. The biosorption behavior of fungal biomass is getting attention due to its several advantages; hence, it needs to be explored further to take its maximum advantage on wastewater treatment. This review discusses the live and dead fungi characteristics of sorption, factors influencing heavy metal removal, and the biosorption capacities for heavy metal ions removal and also discusses the biosorption mechanisms.
Comparative Quality Evaluation of Selected Brands of Cefuroxime Axetil Tablets Marketed in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana
The ever-growing commercialization of poor-quality and substandard medicines, especially anti-infectives characterized by inadequate postmarket surveillance by stakeholders remains a major global health challenge, particularly in developing countries, where antibiotic drug resistance and its repercussions on human health remain dominant. This research sought to evaluate the pharmaceutical quality of six randomly selected brands of cefuroxime axetil tablets (250 mg) marketed in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. The selected brands were coded and subjected to both compendial and noncompendial tests. Statistical analysis and model-independent parameter (similarity factor, f2) were employed in analyzing the dissolution profiles of all the brands. All brands including the reference brand conformed to the pharmacopeial specifications for both compendial and noncompendial tests, indicating that they were of good quality. However, there were significant variations () in the disintegration time amongst the various brands. All the brands had ƒ2 values > 50 indicating similarity of their drug release profiles with the innovator. Hence, all the sampled cefuroxime axetil brands can be considered as pharmaceutical equivalents to the innovator drug. These brands can, therefore, be used as a substitute for the innovator drug by physicians to patients in cases of unaffordability or unavailability of the innovator brand.