Modeling Impact of Land Use Dynamics on Hydrology and Sedimentation of Megech Dam Watershed, EthiopiaRead the full article
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The Role of the Patient Information Leaflet in Patients’Medication Therapy: A Case Study within the Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana
One of the tools used in providing comprehensible medication information to patients on their medication use for improved adherence and subsequent optimal therapeutic effect is the Patient Information (PI) leaflet. In Ghana, the patient information leaflet is available through various sources including health-care professionals (HCPs) and electronic forms. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that more than 70% of patients, especially in the developing countries, who receive medications do not read the accompanying leaflet. This study assessed the role of the patient information leaflet in Patients’ medication therapy in the Kumasi metropolis of Ghana. A random cross-sectional survey was conducted in various hospitals and pharmacies within selected districts in the Kumasi metropolis. The survey revealed that 96.9% of the sampled respondents (n = 300) were provided with PI leaflets on their medicines while only 3.1% of them indicated otherwise. Among the proportion of respondents who were provided with PI leaflets, 66.7% of them read the information on the drug leaflets whilst the remaining 33.3% did not. Ultimately, 62.4% of those who read the PI leaflets were influenced to discontinue their medication. In conclusion, reading of the drug information leaflet was higher than that found in previous studies in Ghana. Reading the leaflet did not increase adherence but aroused anxiety and decreased adherence in some patients. A large number of the patients who were given the PI leaflets indicated that it did not provide them with the needed information.
Potential Use and Challenges of Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment and Conservation in Game Lodges and Resorts in Kenya
Constructed wetlands are cost-effective wastewater treatment alternatives that receive worldwide acceptance. For the Kenyan hospitality industry, in particular, constructed wetlands (CWs) provide opportunities for wastewater reuse and recovery of resources, as well as improvements in local environmental conditions. Hospitality establishments produce large volumes of wastewater that is sometimes discharged to the environment without being treated. This is not only harmful to communities living downstream of these rivers but also to the flora and fauna which are the main attraction for most who visit these lodges. This study used qualitative methods to collect and analyze published official government documents, peer-reviewed research articles, and professional reports including leading international and Kenyan case studies to explore how constructed wetlands can be effectively used in game lodges and resorts situated in arid and remote areas of Kenya. The study investigated wastewater management systems adopted by remote game lodges and resorts in Kenya and the potential role, as well as the challenges to adopting constructed wetland (CW) technology. The results indicated that hotels, game lodges, and resorts both internationally and locally are adopting different types of CWs including surface and subsurface flow as alternative nature-oriented wastewater management systems. The study identified opportunities in the use of CWs as a wastewater management and conservation strategy. The results suggest that there are potential challenges which include inadequate expertise and technical support; low volume of discharge during off-seasons; limited space or land; and the attitude of hospitality managers towards constructed wetlands. Based on these preliminary findings, one may conclude that game lodges, ecolodges, and resorts in remote areas are prime candidates for constructed wetland establishment. The study makes specific recommendations with implications for policy and practice to promote sustainable hospitality operations and environmental conservation. It is suggested that future studies test the efficacy and efficiency of CW technology as wastewater management systems in the Kenyan wilderness areas including national parks, game reserves, and forests.
Hepatoprotective Effects of a Novel Trihoney against Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Comparative Study with Atorvastatin
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disorder worldwide with no curative therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of a novel Trihoney against biochemical and histological manifestations of NAFLD in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Methodology. Forty-eight male New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were grouped into normal diet (C), normal diet with 0.6 g/kg/day of Trihoney (C + H), 1% cholesterol diet (HCD), 1% cholesterol diet with 0.3 g/kg/day of Trihoney (HCD + H1), 1% cholesterol diet with 0.6 g/kg/day of Trihoney (HCD + H2), and 1% cholesterol diet with 2 mg/kg/day of atorvastatin (HCD + At.). Animals were sacrificed after 12 weeks of treatment. Serum lipids and liver function test (LFT) were measured prior to and at the endpoint of the experiment for total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and total bilirubin (T. Bil.). Liver was processed for histopathology study. Liver homogenate was analysed for oxidative stress parameters: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA). Results. Lipid analysis approved the induction of hypercholesterolemia. A significant elevation () of serum AST and ALT levels showed by the HCD group was compared to C and C + H groups. Trihoney exhibited a significant reduction () of AST and ALT compared to the HCD group. Likewise, AST and ALT reduced significantly in the HCD + At. group (). Trihoney supplementation induced significant () enhancement of SOD and GPx activities. Atorvastatin treatment was associated with significant () reduction of SOD and GPx activities in the liver. Trihoney and atorvastatin showed marked () reduction of hepatic lipid peroxidation. Trihoney showed histological protection against progression of NAFLD to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Atorvastatin exhibited no beneficial impact on hepatic architecture. Conclusion. Trihoney was able to maintain normal liver function and showed hepatoprotection against progression of NAFLD to NASH probably through hypocholesterolaemic and antioxidant functions.
Phenolic Content and Antioxidant, Antihyperlipidemic, and Antidiabetogenic Effects of Opuntia dillenii Seed Oil
Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gawl.) Haw. is a medicinal plant that is widely used by the Moroccan population to treat many diseases, thanks to its richness in bioactive molecules. This study aims to evaluate the total phenolic content and antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetogenic activities of O. dillenii seeds oil (ODSO), in vivo. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay and the Folin–Ciocalteu method were applied in this study to determine antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of ODSO, respectively. The antihyperlipidemic effect of the ODSO (2 ml/kg) was evaluated in the high-fat diet-fed albino mice, relying on lipid profile, blood glucose, and growth performance variations. Moreover, the preventive effect of ODSO was evaluated against alloxan monohydrate-induced diabetes in albino mice. ODSO had the highest total phenolic content (518.18 ± 14.36 mg EAC/kg) and DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.38 ± 0.08 mg/mL). Furthermore, ODSO showed a significant antidiabetogenic effect by reducing bodyweight loss, blood sugar level rise, and mortality rate caused by alloxan in albino mice. Then, ODSO has exhibited a significant antihyperlipidemic effect by improving the lipid profile disorder and glucose level rise in the blood, produced by the high-fat diet-fed albino mice. Results suggest that antidiabetogenic and antihyperlipidemic activities of ODSO correlate to the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of this oil. Hence, this plant could be a significant source of medically important critical compounds.
Oral Health of Children with Autism: The Influence of Parental Attitudes and Willingness in Providing Care
Objectives. Parents play a crucial role in health-related practices of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study assessed the association between oral health status and oral health practices of children with ASD in relation to their parental attitudes and comfort in providing oral care. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 75 children with ASD attending the special needs schools in Eastern Saudi Arabia from 2015–2018. Parents responded to a self-administered questionnaire assessing their attitudes toward oral health and comfort in providing oral care for children. The clinical examination assessed dental caries (decayed, extracted, and filled: (DMF and def)), gingival disease, and plaque accumulation. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationship between the study variables, while ANOVA followed by post hoc was used to assess the differences. Results. Prevalence of dental caries in primary teeth was 76% and 68% in the permanent dentition with a mean of 0.85 ± 1.9 and 1.03 ± 2.9, respectively. Thirty-one participants had gingival problems, mean gingival index was 1.03 ± 0.88, and mean plaque index was 0.95 ± 0.43. Half of the parents supervised their children’s brushing, which was significantly associated with plaque accumulation ( = 0.004), gingival disease ( < 0.0001), and def ( = 0.02). Parental attitudes and comfort in providing oral health care were not associated with oral health status of ASD children; however, positive parental attitudes were associated with lower sugar consumption ( = 0.043). An inverse correlation was observed between comfort in providing oral health care with gingival and plaque scores r = −0.18 and −0.23, respectively. Conclusions. The data are indicative of poor oral health practices and status among ASD children. Parents’ oral health care practices seem to be reactive rather than proactive. Positive parental attitudes were associated with lower sugar consumption. Greater comfort in providing care was negatively correlated with plaque accumulation and gingival problems.
The Role of the Dental Surgeon in Controlling the Dissemination of COVID-19: A Literature Review
As early as December 2019 in the province of Hubei, China, contamination of patients with pneumonia of an unknown etiology occurred. These patients presented with symptoms such as coughing, sore throat, malaise, diarrhea, high fever, and dyspnea. This emerging disease was named COVID-19 due to being part of the group of coronaviruses (CoVs) belonging to the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae, in the Coronaviridae family and in the Nidovirales order. COVID-19 is most commonly transmitted through speech, coughing, sneezing, and salivary sputum. Because dental professionals work closely with the oral cavity, it is imperative that infection prevention controls are strictly adhered to. It is important that the dental profession treats patients while also limiting the possible contamination through the production of aerosol in the dental environment. Furthermore, the dental professional also has a key role in raising awareness and guidance amongst the population concerning COVID-19 related biosafety measures. This literature review aims to inform dental professionals about the COVID-19 pandemic and to present the implications of the virus to the dentist. Dental professionals are considered to be at high risk for contracting SARS-CoV-2.