Valorization of Waste Water of Rosa damascena Oil Distillation Process by Ion Exchange ChromatographyRead the full article
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Thermogravimetric Analysis of Modified Montmorillonite Clay for Mycotoxin Decontamination in Cereal Grains
Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was carried out to study the stability of nanoformulations used for the decontamination of mycotoxins. The TGA patterns of the nanoformulations from montmorillonite clay and Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) extracts were assessed with temperature ranging from ambient (20°C) to 1000°C. The various nanoformulations studied included unmodified montmorillonite clay (Mont), montmorillonite washed with sodium chloride (Mont-Na), montmorillonite mixed with lemongrass essential oil (Mont-LGEO), and montmorillonite mixed with an equal quantity of lemongrass powder (Mont-LGP). There was no significant difference in the median of the various nanoformulations within 4 weeks at using the Kruskal–Wallis nonparametric test. For the TGA, the first degradation for montmorillonite clay and the nanoformulations occurred at a temperature between 80 and 101°C and was attributed to the loss of lattice water outside the coordination sphere with a range of 3.5–6.5% weight loss. The second degradation occurred within the temperature of 338 to 344°C, and the third, at a temperature between 640 and 668°C for Mont and the formulations of Mont-Na, Mont-LGEO, and Mont-LGP. There were strong similarities in the degradation patterns of Mont and Mont-Na with the minimum difference being the relatively higher weight loss of the sodium-exchanged cation for Mont-Na at the third degradation step. Hence, the order of stability from the most resistant to the least resistant to degradation is as follows: Mont-LGEO ≥ Mont-Na ≥ Mont ≥ Mont-LGP.
A Multivariate and Spatiotemporal Analysis of Water Quality in Code River, Indonesia
The efficacy of a water quality management strategy highly depends on the analysis of water quality data, which must be intensively analyzed from both spatial and temporal perspectives. This study aims to analyze spatial and temporal trends in water quality in Code River in Indonesia and correlate these with land use and land cover changes over a particular period. Water quality data consisting of 15 parameters and Landsat image data taken from 2011 to 2017 were collected and analyzed. We found that the concentrations of total dissolved solid, nitrite, nitrate, and zinc had increasing trends from upstream to downstream over time, whereas concentrations of parameter biological oxygen demand, cuprum, and fecal coliform consistently undermined water quality standards. This study also found that the proportion of natural vegetation land cover had a positive correlation with the quality of Code River’s water, whereas agricultural land and built-up areas were the most sensitive to water pollution in the river. Moreover, the principal component analysis of water quality data suggested that organic matter, metals, and domestic wastewater were the most important factors for explaining the total variability of water quality in Code River. This study demonstrates the application of a GIS-based multivariate analysis to the interpretation of water quality monitoring data, which could aid watershed stakeholders in developing data-driven intervention strategies for improving the water quality in rivers and streams.
Comparison of the Efficiency of Two Novel Guided Bone Regeneration Devices in the Rabbit Calvarial Model
Background. Creating a secluded large space using guided bone regeneration (GBR) is a novel osteogenesis technique used in the prevention of premature membrane exposure complications. However, this technique is not considered clinically feasible. Objectives. This study aimed to compare the outcome of the insertion of two novel GBR devices in a rabbit calvarial model in terms of mode of action, simplicity, and amount of new space and bone gained. Materials and Methods. The expansible GBR (EGBR) device, composed mainly of a titanium plate, silicone membrane, and activation screw, was inserted beneath the periosteum in the calvarial area of eight rabbits. The smart GBR (SGBR) device, composed of silicone sheets and Nitinol strips, were inserted beneath the periosteum in the calvarial area of another 10 rabbits. Half of each group was sacrificed 2 months after surgery, and the other half was sacrificed after 4 months. Results. Histological and microradiographical analysis showed that, at 2 months, the EGBR device achieved a mean space gain of 207.2 mm3, a mean bone volume of 68.2 mm3, and a mean maximum bone height of 1.9 mm. Values for the same parameters at 4 months were 202.1 mm3, 70.3 mm3, and 1.6 mm, respectively. The SGBR device had significantly higher mean space gain (238.2 mm3; 239.5 mm3), bone volume (112.9 mm3, 107.7 mm3), and bone height (2.7 mm; 2.6 mm) than the EGBR device at 2 and 4 months, respectively. Conclusion. Both devices proved to be effective in augmenting bone vertically through the application of GBR and soft tissue expansion processes. However, the SGBR device was more efficient in terms of mode of action, simplicity, and amount of bone created in the new space.
Study of Cold-Pressed Tobacco Seed Oil Properties by Gas Chromatography Method
A special place among vegetable oils was occupied by natural tobacco oil. Natural tobacco oil in folk medicine is used as an antiseptic and antibacterial agent. To determine the possible alternative use of tobacco, the seeds representing Kazakhstan tobacco cultivars, extracted from ground Nicotiana tabacum seeds, were investigated by using the cold press. The quality of the oil was assessed in terms of free fatty acid content. The percentage oil yield was 36.75 ± 0.50%. Tobacco seed oil is highly unsaturated, nonacidic, and would require little purification. The oil can be used for the production of soap, antiwrinkle cream for the face, hair shampoo, shoe cream, and as a high-resolution base oil for perfumes and light industry and can be commercialized due to its high oil yield, for use as anti-inflammatory drugs.
Role of Muscarinic Receptors in Hypoalgesia Induced by Crocin in Neuropathic Pain Rats
Objective. Crocin as an important constituent of saffron has antineuropathic pain properties; however, the exact mechanism of this effect is not known. The aim of this study was whether the hypoalgesic effect of crocin can be exerted through muscarinic receptors. Materials and Methods. In the present project, 36 male Wistar rats (200 ± 20 g) were used. Animals randomly divided into six groups (sham, neuropathy, neuropathy + crocin, neuropathy + atropine 0.5 mg/kg, neuropathy + atropine 1 mg/kg, and neuropathy + atropine 1 mg/kg + crocin). Neuropathy was induced by the chronic constriction injury (CCI) method on the sciatic nerve. Crocin and atropine was administered intraperitoneally during 14 days following the 14th day after surgery. Pain response was detected every three days, two hours after each injection and 3 days following last injection. Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were detected using the Von Frey filaments and plantar test device, respectively. Results. CCI significantly reduced the paw withdrawal response to mechanical and thermal stimulus ( and , respectively). Crocin therapy significantly reduced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia induced by CCI (). Atropine pretreatment significantly blocked the hypoalgesic effect of crocin ( in mechanical allodynia and in thermal hyperalgesia). Fourteen days administration of atropine alone at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg but not 1 mg/kg significantly reduced CCI-induced mechanical allodynia at day 30 after surgery. Conclusion. Crocin significantly decreased CCI-induced neuropathic pain. The hypoalgesic effect of crocin was blocked by atropine pretreatment, which indicates an important role for muscarinic receptors in the effect of crocin.
Knowledge, Attitude, and Adaptation to Climate Change in Ghana
Climate change is a serious challenge to human existence. It threatens efforts towards the attainment of sustainable development goals and aggravates conditions that lead to health inequities and inequalities for vulnerable populations. The study aimed to investigate knowledge and adaptation to climate change among people in Ghana. A nationally representative survey of Ghanaian adults (N = 674) was conducted from August 1, 2019, to December 31, 2019. Results showed that 43.9% of the respondents understood the meaning of climate change. Respondents perceived the causes of climate change to include burning of fossil fuel, deforestation, natural events such as ocean currents, carbon emission from vehicles and industries, agricultural emissions of nitrous oxide from fertilizers, and an act of God. About 53.1% and 41% of the male and female respondents, respectively, had an encounter with climate change-induced natural disasters. About two out of five respondents (43%) were either afraid or confused about climate change. Distilled or maintained public drainage from waste (30.2%) and clearing drains (25.6%) was the leading adaptation strategies towards climate change-induced natural disasters. Training (30.1%), national radio (27.7%), and television (19.1%) were the preferred leading methods for receipt of global warming information. These findings provide useful insights for policy directions. The government of Ghana and other stakeholders should develop a communication strategy to increase and sustain publicity and education on climate change to the citizenry.