The Effect of the Difference in Intensity and Track of Tropical Cyclone on Significant Wave Height and Wave Direction in the Southeast Indian OceanRead the full article
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Determinants of Pro-Poor Growth and Its Impacts on Income Share: Evidence from Ethiopian Time Series Data
The growing research interest in the pro-poorness of growth is the main issue today. Reducing economic poverty and inequality through pro-poor growth is the aim of policies in many countries. Pro-poor growth is good for poverty eradication if it can be achieved. Ethiopia is a good example of a country where growth was pro-poor between 1990 and 2018 but the pro-poor growth was reversed in 2016. The paper examined what led to pro-poor growth between 1990 and 2018 and what may have been responsible for the reversal in 2016. Unit root test reveals that all the series are nonstationary at level and stationary at first difference and have one cointegration relation between the variables. The dynamic ordinary least squares method was used to analyze the Ethiopian time series data from World Bank Development Indicators between 1990 and 2018 for the determinant of pro-poor growth. Regression analysis shows that job creation was responsible for the pro-poor growth between 1990 and 2018. The results of the analysis showed that human capital, industrial, and services growth have negative impacts on poorest people, whereas employment and agriculture growth have positive impacts on poorest people. In the richest income group, human capital, and industrial and service growths have positive impacts while agricultural growth and employment have negative impacts.
Knowledge of Preconception Healthcare and Associated Factors: A Study among Mothers in Jinka Town, Southern Region, Ethiopia
Background. Preconception healthcare is promising to improve the reproductive health status of women and couples if they receive care three months to two years before conception. In the current context of Ethiopia, however, preconception healthcare is overlooked in the continuum of care. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the knowledge of preconception healthcare and associated factors: a study among mothers in Jinka town, southern region, Ethiopia. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was employed among 522 randomly selected women of childbearing age who are living in Jinka town from March to April 2018. The study considers all the kebeles in the town. Study subjects were determined using proportionate-to-population size allocation. Then, a systematic random sampling technique was applied. Data were collected using a semistructured and pretested questionnaire. Descriptive summary data and binary logistic regression analysis were carried out to identify factors with the 95% confidence level and a value of less than 0.05. Results. A total of 513 study subjects participated in this study. The overall preconception healthcare knowledge score of women in Jinka town was 51.1%. In the multivariable analysis, housewives (AOR = 2.93; 95% CI: 1.38–6.19), an education level of at least college (AOR = 3.79; 95% CI: 1.75–8.23), no history of neonatal death (AOR = 4.13; 95% CI = 1.39–12.25), and the use of family planning methods (AOR = 2.38; 95% CI: 1.49–3.79) increased the probability of preconception healthcare knowledge compared to the counterparts. Conclusion. In this study, women’s knowledge of preconception healthcare was found borderline. The identified factors were housewife, education level of at least college, no history of neonatal death, and using family planning methods. Therefore, emphasizing these factors for the enhancement of women’s knowledge of preconception healthcare is a necessary step.
Recent Advances of Hepatitis B Detection towards Paper-Based Analytical Devices
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) still remains a major global public health problem. One-half to one-third of the total HBV infected people died due to late detection of HBV. Serological antigen and viral HBV detections can help in the diagnosis, referral, and treatment of HBV. Available methods for HBV detection mostly used bulky instruments. Miniaturization of devices for HBV detection has been started by narrowing down the size of the devices. Several methods have also been proposed to increase the selectivity and sensitivity of the miniaturized methods, such as sandwich recognition of the biomarkers and the use of nano- to micro-sized materials. This review presents recent HBV detections in the last two decades from laboratory-based instruments towards microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) for point-of-care testing (POCT) purposes. Early and routine analysis to detect HBV as early as possible could be achieved by POCT, especially for areas with limited access to a central laboratory and/or medical facilities.
Repellent Effects of Selected Organic Leaf Extracts of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray and Vernonia lasiopus (O. Hoffman) against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
Introduction. Sitophilus zeamais infestation is among the major setbacks to sustainable maize farming and availability. It causes an estimated annual loss of 5–10% and 20–30% of the total maize grains loss in the temperate and tropical zones, respectively. Although synthetic pesticides are quick and effective in managing crop pests, their overuse and misuse is discouraged due to their detrimental effects on human and environment. Natural pesticidal products that are extracted from plants are particularly gaining importance as an alternative to synthetic pesticides. They are available, easily biodegraded and have low toxicity to nontarget organisms. Most botanical pesticides act on insects by repelling them away from the crops in the field or in the stores. Therefore, this study aimed to determine repellency potential of organic leaf extracts of Tithonia diversifolia and Vernonia lasiopus on S. zeamais. Materials and methods. The phytochemical profile of T. diversifolia and V. lasiopus was determined using GC-MS. Laboratory-based experiments were carried out using area preference method to assess the efficacy of the extracts against weevils for a test period of 5 h. Six groups of experiments were set up with ten S. zeamais in each test: positive control (Actellic), negative control (solvent only), and four different experimental extract concentrations (25, 50, 75, and 100%). Results. The results indicated that T. diversifolia and V. lasiopus leaf extracts possess potent repellency effect on weevils. All the extracts simply discouraged S. zeamais from the treated areas recording significantly good levels of repellent activities between 26 and 96%. Furthermore, the GC-MS analysis manifested the presence of bioactive compound in the extracts which are associated with the repellency effects. Conclusion. The study scientifically confirms the traditional use of the T. diversifolia and V. lasiopus and provides important platform for further study on the extracts as bioresource of botanical repellent.
Analysis of the Current and Future Prediction of Land Use/Land Cover Change Using Remote Sensing and the CA-Markov Model in Majang Forest Biosphere Reserves of Gambella, Southwestern Ethiopia
This study aimed to evaluate land use/land cover changes (1987–2017), prediction (2032–2047), and identify the drivers of Majang Forest Biosphere Reserves. Landsat image (TM, ETM+, and OLI-TIRS) and socioeconomy data were used for the LU/LC analysis and its drivers of change. The supervised classification was also employed to classify LU/LC. The CA-Markov model was used to predict future LU/LC change using IDRISI software. Data were collected from 240 households from eight kebeles in two districts to identify LU/LC change drivers. Five LU/LC classes were identified: forestland, farmland, grassland, settlement, and waterbody. Farmland and settlement increased by 17.4% and 3.4%, respectively; while, forestland and grassland were reduced by 77.8% and 1.4%, respectively, from 1987 to 2017. The predicted results indicated that farmland and settlement increased by 26.3% and 6.4%, respectively, while forestland and grassland decreased by 66.5% and 0.8%, respectively, from 2032 to 2047. Eventually, agricultural expansion, population growth, shifting cultivation, fuel wood extraction, and fire risk were identified as the main drivers of LU/LC change. Generally, substantial LU/LC changes were observed and will continue in the future. Hence, land use plan should be proposed to sustain resource of Majang Forest Biosphere Reserves, and local communities’ livelihood improvement strategies are required to halt land conversion.
Pb-Contaminated Soil from Quintero-Ventanas, Chile: Remediation Using Sarcocornia neei
A phytoremediation process for lead (Pb) under laboratory conditions on contaminated soil from the Puchuncaví commune, Valparaíso Province, Chile, was carried out. It analyzed the phytoremediation potential of Sarcocornia neei (Lag.) M.A. Alonso and M.B. Crespo. The plants were propagated beforehand and extracted from the El Yali wetland, a RAMSAR 878 site in Valparaíso. Soil fertility and heavy metal concentration analyses of composite samples were conducted, complying with established protocols and standard methodology for chemical and metal analyses. These analyses were conducted in the Soil Analysis Laboratory of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso. The aim was to analyse not only the tissue of plants from both areas but also the soil to identify the changes in different conditions in which the plants live. To determine the type of inferential analysis to be performed, a normality test was applied; however, it was deemed unsuitable, and therefore, the contrasts were developed using nonparametric tests, particularly Wilcoxon. R project software was used in the tests, especially the RCommander package, together with the Jamovi free-license statistical spreadsheet application. The analyses results of the soil samples indicated high concentrations of heavy metals, predominantly Pb at a concentration of 77.97 mg/kg, acidic soil indicated by pH between 5.77 and 6.38, low levels of electrical conductivity, and the presence of organic matter. A phytoremediation efficiency of 99% on soil samples was achieved. Preliminary results were compared against international regulations on the concentration of metals in soil. The histological sections showed that individual plants probably adapted to their environmental conditions.