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An Efflux Pumps Inhibitor Significantly Improved the Antibacterial Activity of Botanicals from Plectranthus glandulosus towards MDR Phenotypes
Bacterial multidrug resistance causes many therapeutic failures, making it more difficult to fight against bacterial diseases. This study aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of extract, fractions, and phytochemicals from Plectranthus glandulosus (Lamiaceae) against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative phenotypes expressing efflux pumps. The crude extract after extraction was subjected to column chromatography, and the structures of the isolated compounds were determined using spectrometric and spectroscopic techniques. Antibacterial assays of samples alone and in the presence of an efflux pump inhibitor (phenylalanine-arginine β-naphthylamide, PAβN) were carried out using the broth microdilution method. The phytochemical study of P. glandulosus plant extract afforded seven major fractions (A–G) which lead to the isolation of seventeen known compounds. The ethanol extract of P. glandulosus was not active at up to 1024 μg/mL, whereas its fractions showed MICs varying from 32 to 512 μg/mL on the studied bacteria. Fraction C of P. glandulosus showed the lowest MIC (32 μg/mL) on E. coli ATCC8739 strain. Fraction D presented the highest activity spectrum by inhibiting the growth of 90% (9/10) of the studied bacteria. The presence of PAβN has improved the activity of extract and all fractions. Overall, the tested phytochemicals showed low activity against the studied bacteria. The overall results obtained in this study show that some fractions from P. glandulosus, mainly fractions C and D, should be investigated more for their possible use to fight against MDR bacteria.
Enamel Surface Damage following Debonding of Ceramic Brackets: A Hospital-Based Study
Background and Objective. The primary responsibility of an orthodontist is to preserve the dental enamel structure during debonding ceramic brackets. The enamel injury caused at the time of bracket removal causes inconvenience to the patient and disturbs the treating orthodontist. This paper aims for an effective evidence-based debonding protocol to keep the enamel surface intact. Methods. The current study includes 80 extracted premolars of human from the patient visiting for orthodontic treatment of Coorg Institute of Dental Sciences, Karnataka, India. The brackets were debonded using four different methods. The enamel surface damage after the procedure was assessed with the Enamel Surface Index (ESI); similarly, the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) score was used to determine the adhesive residual deposit. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to visualize better microporosities and micromechanical retention of adhesive remnants on the enamel surface. The normality of the data was tested using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. Depending upon the normality test result, the one-way ANOVA test or Kruskal–Wallis test was used to test the mean ESI and mean ARI differences among different debonding methods along with the appropriate post hoc tests. The necessary ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethics Committee of the institute. Results. The ultrasonic scaler (US) technique led to more significant enamel surface damage, with 13 (65%) samples in the ESI scores III and IV against the satisfactory surface in 2 (10%) samples with the ligature cutter (LC) technique (ESI-I) reflecting LC as a better technique. The ESI scores (III and IV) for debonding plier (DP) and thermal method (TM) reflected a higher value in 12 (60%) and 10 (50%) samples and caused more damage to the enamel surface as compared to the LC technique. The ARI score was highest (ARI-1 = 40%) with the LC technique, followed by the US (ARI-1 = 20%), TM (ARI-1 = 15%), and DP (ARI-1 = 5%) methods. We have observed a significant association ( value <0.05) of the ARI score among four different debonding ways in terms of each tooth’s residual adhesive after the bracket removal. Conclusion. The result establishes the LC technique as a more acceptable one as it causes minimal harm to the debonded surface. The adhesive left on the debonded area is also minimum as compared to the other three methods tested. Therefore, it can be suggested as an ideal method.
Forecasting the Effects of the New SARS-CoV-2 Variant in Europe
Due to the emergence of a new SARS-CoV-2 variant, we use a previous model to simulate the behaviour of this new SARS-CoV-2 variant. The analysis and simulations are performed for Europe, in order to provide a global analysis of the pandemic. In this context, numerical results are obtained in the first 100 days of the pandemic assuming an infectivity of 70%, 56%, and 35%, respectively, higher for the new SAR-CoV-2 variant, as compared with the real data.
The Stability of a Two-Axis Gimbal System for the Camera
Gimbal or an inertial stabilization platform (ISP) is used to stabilize the line of sight of an object or device that is tracking another object (LOS) with stationary or moving targets or targets moving forward. It can achieve precision when there is isolation between the tracker and the gimbal base. Studying the 2-axis tilt angle to create gimbal stability, especially in a camera, is a compelling subject for the automation field, as it is controlled by modern controllers. This paper presents a two-axis gimbal loop in which the LOS rate is stable, and I proceed to examine the stability of the system to get a better overview of the system properties. Through examining the stability of the system, I can choose from modern control methods to control them. The stability of the system used from the two analysis methods I present below gives me a visual view from the results achieved. The simulation is performed in MATLAB.
Petroleum Hydrocarbon Bioremediation Using Native Fungal Isolates and Consortia
Crude oil spills as a result of natural disasters or extraction and transportation operations are common nowadays. Oil spills have adverse effects on both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and pose a threat to human health. This study have been concerned with studying the capability of six fungal species (Curvularia brachyspora, Penicillium chrysogenum, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Alternaria alternata, and Stemphylium botryosum) and three fungal consortia (FC), FC1 (P. chrysogenum and C. brachyspora), FC2 (S. brevicaulis and S. botryosum), and FC3 (S. brevicaulis, S. botryosum, and C. sphaerospermum), to remediate petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs). Qualitative and quantitative changes in polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and saturated hydrocarbons (SH) mixtures and the patterns of PHs degradation have been examined using HPLC and GC. Studying the GC chromatogram of C. sphaerospermum revealed severe degradation of SHs exhibited by this species, and the normal-paraffin and isoparaffin degradation percentage have been valued 97.19% and 98.88%, respectively. A. alternata has shown the highest significant (at ˂ 0.05) PAH degradation percent reaching 72.07%; followed by P. chrysogenum, 59.51%. HPLC data have revealed that high-molecular-weight PAH percent/total PAHs decreased significantly from 98.94% in control samples to 68.78% in samples treated with A. alternata. FC1 and FC2 consortia have exhibited the highest significant PH deterioration abilities than did the individual isolates, indicating that these fungal consortia exhibited positive synergistic effects. The study supports the critical idea of the potential PAH and SH biodegradation as a more ecologically acceptable alternative to their chemical degradation.
Spiritual Well-Being and Associated Factors in End-Stage Renal Disease
People with CKD depend on religion and spirituality to deal with their chronic illness, and those are essential means of coping for those living with chronic diseases. The present study aims to evaluate ESRD patients’ spiritual wellbeing undergoing hemodialysis treatment and to identify critical variables associated with the spiritual wellbeing of those patients. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted, in which 367 patients undergoing HD participated. Patients were randomly selected from six HD units in various geographical areas of Greece. Data were collected through an anonymous self-completed questionnaire consisting of two parts. The first part contained questions regarding demographic, social, and clinical information such as age, gender, marital status, and duration of dialysis comorbidities. The second part assessed the patients’ spiritual wellbeing with the use of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale-12. Multivariate analysis was performed to extract predictors or determinants of spiritual wellbeing of hemodialysis patients. Results. From the total of the 367 participants, 228 (62.1%) were males and 139 (37.9%) were females, and the mean age was 61.80 ± 15.11. Spiritual wellbeing had a mean value of 30.55 (SD = 8.22), which means that patients had a satisfactory spiritual wellbeing level. Multivariate analysis revealed that place of residence, marital status, educational level, and comorbidities could predict spiritual wellbeing in ESRD patients. Conclusions. There is much evidence in the literature supporting the positive effect of spirituality, health (physical and mental), and quality of life. Integration of spiritual wellbeing evaluation and spiritual care in everyday practice as a part of clinical care can increase the quality of the provided care and improve health outcome for patients undergoing hemodialysis.