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The Effects of Tormentic Acid and Extracts from Callistemon citrinus on Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis Growth and Inhibition of Ergosterol Biosynthesis in Candida albicans
Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis are the leading causes of human fungal infections worldwide. There is an increase in resistance of Candida pathogens to existing antifungal drugs leading to a need to find new sources of antifungal agents. Tormentic acid has been isolated from different plants including Callistemon citrinus and has been found to possess antimicrobial properties, including antifungal activity. The study aimed to determine the effects of tormentic and extracts from C. citrinus on C. albicans and C. tropicalis and a possible mode of action. The extracts and tormentic acid were screened for antifungal activity using the broth microdilution method. The growth of both species was inhibited by the extracts, and C. albicans was more susceptible to the extract compared to C. tropicalis. The growth of C. albicans was inhibited by 80% at 100 μg/ml of both the DCM: methanol extract and the ethanol: water extract. Tormentic acid reduced the growth of C. albicans by 72% at 100 μg/ml. The effects of the extracts and tormentic acid on ergosterol content in C. albicans were determined using a UV/Vis scanning spectrophotometer. At concentrations of tormentic acid of 25 μg/ml, 50 μg/ml, 100 μg/ml, and 200 μg/ml, the content of ergosterol was decreased by 22%, 36%, 48%, and 78%, respectively. Similarly, the DCM: methanol extract at 100 μg/ml and 200 μg/ml decreased the content by 78% and 88%, respectively. A dose-dependent decrease in ergosterol content was observed in cells exposed to miconazole with a 25 μg/ml concentration causing a 100% decrease in ergosterol content. Therefore, tormentic acid inhibits the synthesis of ergosterol in C. albicans. Modifications of the structure of tormentic acid to increase its antifungal potency may be explored in further studies.
Plesiomonas: A Review on Food Safety, Fish-Borne Diseases, and Tilapia
Fish and fish products are considered a fundamental part of the human diet due to their high nutritional value. Food-borne diseases are considered a major public health challenge worldwide due to their incidence, associated mortality, and negative economic repercussions. Food safety is the guarantee that foods will not cause harm to the health of those who consume them, and it is a fundamental property of food quality. Food safety can be at risk of being lost at any stage of the food chain if the food is contaminated by pathogenic microorganisms. Many diverse bacteria are present in the environment and as part of the microbiota of food that can be transmitted to humans during the handling and consumption of food. Plesiomonas shigelloides has been mainly associated with outbreaks of gastrointestinal diseases due to the consumption of fish. This bacterium inhabits the environment and aquatic animals and is associated with the microbiota of fish such as tilapia, a fish of importance in fishing, aquaculture, commercialization, and consumption worldwide. The purpose of this document is to provide, through a bibliographic review of databases (Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar, among others), a general informative perspective on food-borne diseases and, in particular, the consumption of fish and tilapia. Diseases derived from contamination by Plesiomonas shigelloides are included, and control and prevention actions and sanitary regulations for fishery products established in several countries around the world are discussed to promote the safety of foods of aquatic origin intended for human consumption and to protect public health.
Associations of Air Pollution and Pediatric Asthma in Cleveland, Ohio
Air pollution has been associated with poor health outcomes and continues to be a risk factor for respiratory health in children. While higher particulate matter (PM) levels are associated with increased frequency of symptoms, lower lung function, and increase airway inflammation from asthma, the precise composition of the particles that are more highly associated with poor health outcomes or healthcare utilization are not fully elucidated. PM is measured quantifiably by current air pollution monitoring systems. To better determine sources of PM and speciation of such sources, a particulate matter (PM) source apportionment study, the Cleveland Multiple Air Pollutant Study (CMAPS), was conducted in Cleveland, Ohio, in 2009–2010, which allowed more refined assessment of associations with health outcomes. This article presents an evaluation of short-term (daily) and long-term associations between motor vehicle and industrial air pollution components and pediatric asthma emergency department (ED) visits by evaluating two sets of air quality data with healthcare utilization for pediatric asthma. Exposure estimates were developed using land use regression models for long-term exposures for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and coarse (i.e., with aerodynamic diameters between 2.5 and 10 μm) particulate matter (PM) and the US EPA Positive Matrix Factorization receptor model for short-term exposures to fine (<2.5 μm) and coarse PM components. Exposure metrics from these two approaches were used in asthma ED visit prevalence and time series analyses to investigate seasonal-averaged short- and long-term impacts of both motor vehicles and industry emissions. Increased pediatric asthma ED visits were found for LUR coarse PM and NO2 estimates, which were primarily contributed by motor vehicles. Consistent, statistically significant associations with pediatric asthma visits were observed, with short-term exposures to components of fine and coarse iron PM associated with steel production. Our study is the first to combine spatial and time series analysis of ED visits for asthma using the same periods and shows that PM related to motor vehicle emissions and iron/steel production are associated with increased pediatric asthma visits.
Factors Associated with Attitude towards Wife-Beating among Married Women of the Reproductive Ages in Arba Minch Town, Southern Ethiopia: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Evidence from demographic and health surveys in various countries and Ethiopia too showed that more women are generally believed to justify intimate partner violence (IPV) than men do. An attitude that justifies IPV is one of the factors affecting victimization and perpetration from IPV. However, women’s justification about the violence and factors affecting the justification are not well documented, particularly by addressing household factors such as household food conditions. Therefore, the present study aims to fill this gap among married women of childbearing age so that evidence can be drawn for holistic interventions. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 696 currently married women of childbearing age (15–49) by using a multistage cluster sampling technique to obtain the women from 11 kebeles (the smallest administrative unit in the government structure of Ethiopia) of Arba Minch town, Southern Ethiopia. Data were collected using a pretested and structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was performed using IBM SPSS version 20. The odds ratio with its 95% confidence interval was used to show the degree of association between the outcome variable and explanatory variables. Nearly two-thirds (59.5%) of the study women justified wife-beating in at least one of the five conditions. A higher odds of justification of wife-beating was observed among women whose marriage was arranged by any other person than the couples themselves, from food-insecure households, with a family size of 5 and above, in the age group of 30–39 years, and whose partner was in the age range of 31–39 years. In contrast, lower odds of justification of wife-beating was observed among women having an age difference of 10 or more years with their partner and those in a household wealth index of middle and higher category. Despite great efforts in realizing gender equality in the country, a higher proportion of women were having the attitude that justifies wife-beating in the five conditions specified to them. Interventions targeting the improvement of women’s attitude towards wife-beating should target against the traditional norms of arranged marriage, improve household food conditions, and decrease family size.
Effect of Yoga on Blood Pressure in Prehypertension: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Introduction. Prehypertension is a precursor for developing hypertension and is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Yoga therapy may have a role in lowering the blood pressures in prehypertension and hypertension. This systematic review aims to synthesize the available literature for the same. Methodology. Databases such as PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched for randomised control trials only in the time duration of 2010–2021. The main outcome of interest was systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Articles were screened based on the inclusion criteria, and 8 articles were recruited for the review. Meta-analysis was done for suitable articles. RevMan 5.4 by Cochrane was used for meta-analysis and forest plot construction. Risk of bias was determined using the Downs and Black checklist by three independent authors. Results. The meta-analysis of the articles favoured yoga intervention over the control intervention. Yoga therapy had significantly reduced the systolic pressure (−0.62 standard mean difference, at IV fixed 95% CI: −0.83, −0.41) and diastolic pressure (−0.81 standard mean difference, at IV random 95% CI: −1.39, −0.22). Secondary outcome measures studied were heart rate, weight, BMI, waist circumference, and lipid profile. The main protocol of yoga therapy included postures, breathing exercises, and different meditation techniques. A significant reduction in secondary outcomes was observed, except for HDL values in lipid profile which showed a gradual increase in yoga group in comparison with alternative therapy. Conclusion. Yoga therapy has shown to be significant in the reduction of systolic and diastolic pressure in prehypertensive population. Supporting evidence lacks in providing a proper structured dosage of yoga asanas and breathing techniques. Considering the existing literature and evidence, Yoga therapy can be used and recommended in prehypertensive population and can be beneficial in reducing the chances of developing hypertension or cardiovascular diseases.
Effect of Continuous Feeding of Ayu-Narezushi on Lipid Metabolism in a Mouse Model of Metabolic Syndrome
Ayu-narezushi, a traditional Japanese fermented food, comprises abundant levels of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and free amino acids. This study aimed to examine the potential beneficial effects of ayu-narezushi and investigated whether ayu-narezushi led to improvements in the Tsumura Suzuki obese diabetes (TSOD) mice model of spontaneous metabolic syndrome because useful LAB are known as probiotics that regulate intestinal function. In the present study, the increased body weight of the TSOD mice was attenuated in those fed the ayu-narezushi-comprised chow (ayu-narezushi group) compared with those fed the normal rodent chow (control group). Serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels were significantly lower in the Ayu-narezushi group than in the control group at 24 weeks of age. Furthermore, hepatic mRNA levels of carnitine-palmitoyl transferase 1 and acyl-CoA oxidase, which related to fatty acid oxidation, were significantly increased in the ayu-narezushi group than in the control group at 24 weeks of age. In conclusion, these results suggested that continuous feeding with ayu-narezushi improved obesity and dyslipidemia in the TSOD mice and that the activation of fatty acid oxidation in the liver might contribute to these improvements.