Tradition Mills’ Picholine Olive Oil Physicochemical Characterization and Chemical Profiling across Different Cities in MoroccoRead the full article
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In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Crude Extracts of Artocarpus heterophyllus Seeds against Selected Diarrhoea-Causing Superbug Bacteria
The current upsurge in resistance to conventional antibiotics, as well as high cost of orthodox medical treatment, called for the use of medicinal plants as an alternative therapy. This research was aimed at determining the antibacterial activity of Artocarpus heterophyllus seed extracts (Jackfruit as it is locally called) in the treatment of diarrhoea. Ethanolic and hexanolic seed crude extracts of the plant were screened for antidiarrhoeal activity against bacteria isolated from clinical samples (methicillin-resistant and susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella typhimurium, and third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli). Plant phytochemical screening was conducted using standard methods. The antibacterial activity was carried out using the agar well diffusion method and compared to the standard antibiotics ceftriaxone and vancomycin. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the microbroth dilution method, whereas the minimum bactericidal concentration was determined by plating out from microtitre plates with no visible growth. The results of phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, reducing sugars, cardiac glycosides, saponins, and steroids from the prepared crude extracts. The ethanolic and hexanolic extracts had activity on multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus with the mean and standard error zone of inhibition that ranged from 8.5 ± 0.5 to 16.5 ± 0.25 mm; however, the extracts were found not to have activity on resistant E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium. The ethanolic crude extract had the lowest MIC and MBC values of 31.25 and 125 mg/ml, respectively, compared to the hexane extract which had the MIC and MBC values of 62.50 and 250 mg/ml, respectively. This provides the evidence for its usage as an alternative herbal remedy for the treatment of diarrhoea caused by susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Potential Applicability of Cocoa Pulp (Theobroma cacao L) as an Adjunct for Beer Production
The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of cocoa pulp as an adjunct for malt in beer production. The cocoa pulp was analyzed for humidity, proteins, lipids, sugars, total soluble solids, organic acids, and minerals. A study was carried out to reduce the cocoa pulp viscosity by enzymatic depectinization, making its use viable in beer production. The cocoa pulp showed relevant quantities of compounds important in fermentation, such as sugars, acids, and minerals. In fermentation using the adjunct, the proportions of pulp used were 10, 30, and 49%. A significant difference was found between the adjunct and all-malt worts. The 30% cocoa pulp concentration as an adjunct for malt in the fermentation medium contributed the most to the fermentative performance of the yeasts at both 15 and 22°C based on the consumption of apparent extract (°Plato), ethanol production, and cellular growth.
Activity Budget and Feeding Ecology of Geladas (Theropithecus gelada obscurus) around Abogedam Church West of Debre Berhan Town, Ethiopia
Geladas are the most distinctive of Ethiopian endemic mammals, representing the last extant species of primate genus that have a very restricted distribution in the northern Ethiopian plateau. The activity budget and feeding ecology of geladas (Theropithecus gelada obscurus) were studied around Abogedam Church, Ethiopia, from May to October 2014, encompassing dry and wet seasons. The scan sampling method was applied to collect behavioural data on the identified band. Activity scans were collected at 15-minute intervals for up to five minutes duration from 0700 to 1730 h. The activity recorded for each individual was the first activity that lasts for five seconds. During each scan, individuals were recorded as performing activities: feeding, moving, resting, playing, aggression, grooming, sexual activity, and others. On average, geladas devoted 57.19% feeding, 14.82% resting, 14.92% moving, 4.83% playing, 2.53% aggression, 4.14% grooming, 1.23% sexual activity, and 0.34% other activities such as vocalization, defecation, and urination. Forty-one plant species were consumed by geladas that belonged to 18 families of which 53.66% were grasses. This study provides basic information on further studies and motivates conservationists to plan the management of unprotected areas at the vicinity of agricultural lands where such endemic animals dwell.
Prevalence of Dental Trauma and Receipt of Its Treatment among Male School Children in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia
Background. Dental trauma is a common dental public health problem, and it affects 20% to 30% of permanent dentition worldwide. Objective. To evaluate self-reported dental trauma to permanent anterior teeth and the receipt of dental treatment among male school children. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study included grade 7 to 9 school children in Dammam/Al-Khobar, the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. The participants responded to a pilot-tested self-completion questionnaire which contained questions about experience, types, place, and reasons for dental trauma and the receipt of dental treatment. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. There were 258 students in the study with a mean age of 14.29 ± 1.11 years. Dental trauma was experienced by 39.5% of the participants. Tooth fracture (22.7%) was the most common type of dental trauma followed by tooth displacement (8.7%) and complete tooth removal (8%). The most common reason of dental trauma included fall (9.3%) and accidental hit by some objects (8.9). Home (19.8%), school (5%), and playground (4.2%) were reported as common places of dental trauma. Dental treatment was received by 20.5% of the samples. Most participants visited a dental clinic (10.8%) and used self-care at home (7.2%) after dental trauma. Nearly 4.7% of the participants received dental treatment immediately, 5% on the next day, and 2.7% after a month. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed a significant association of monthly family income (odds ratio = 0.44) with dental trauma (). Conclusion. Dental trauma was highly prevalent among school children; however, few of them received care/dental treatment. Participants frequently experienced dental trauma due to a fall in their homes. Preventive measures should be taken to prevent dental trauma, reduce its burden, and improve quality of life.
Land Use and Land Cover Dynamics and Properties of Soils under Different Land Uses in the Tejibara Watershed, Ethiopia
Land use changes have long been considered among many factors responsible for physical and chemical soil degradation. This study was conducted to evaluate land use and land cover (LULC) changes and their cumulative effects over 30 years (from 1989 to 2019) on the current physical and chemical properties of soils in the Tejibara watershed, Ethiopia. Image analysis and LULC classifications were performed using ERDAS IMAGINE 2014 and ArcGIS 10.4 software, respectively. For the determination of soil properties, four land use types (natural forest, eucalyptus plantation, cultivated, and grazing lands) and two soil depths (0–20 and 20–40 cm) were used. Triplicate composite soil samples were collected from each land use type and soil depths. For the determination of physical (texture and bulk density) and chemical soil properties such as electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (TN), and available phosphorus (AP), standard laboratory procedures were employed. The image analysis results for all of the years studied show that cultivated lands have increased in area at the expense of forest and grazing lands. Silt content, clay content, AP, and pH were significantly affected by land use as the main effect while the interaction effects of soil depth and land use were significant for total N and OM only. The highest (10.1 mg/kg) and the lowest (4.9 mg/kg) AP contents were observed in the forest and the grazing lands, respectively. Soil total N content was highest in the forest lands (0.32%) and lowest in cultivated lands (0.06%). Concerning OM content, the highest (11.0%) and the lowest (0.8%) values were recorded in the forest and cultivated lands, respectively. Generally, this study showed that land use changes have reduced the areal coverage by forest and grazing lands and have negatively affected the soil properties. This implies that land use change without soil fertility measures that are appropriate to the area could cause enhanced land degradation and thereby reduce the productivity of the study area soils.
Crystal Guava (Psidium guajava L. “Crystal”): Evaluation of In Vitro Antioxidant Capacities and Phytochemical Content
Free radicals can cause many diseases, such as cancer. Antioxidant is a compound that could scavenge free radicals. One of the natural antioxidants is guava. The goals of this research were to investigate the antioxidant activity of leaves and fruit of crystal guava by determining the value of the Antioxidant Activity Index (AAI) using DPPH, CUPRAC, and FRAP; evaluate the total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC); analyse the correlation between the TPC and TFC with AAI DPPH, CUPRAC, and FRAP, and analyse the correlation between the 3 methods. Extraction was performed by the reflux method using n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol. Determination of AAI DPPH, CUPRAC, FRAP, the TPC, and the TFC was performed by UV-visible spectrophotometry. The correlation of the TPC and TFC with AAI DPPH, CUPRAC, and FRAP and, also, the correlation of the 3 methods were investigated by Pearson’s method. The antioxidant activity of leaves and fruit extracts of crystal guava showed AAI DPPH in the range of 0.33–56.46, CUPRAC 0.20–7.31, and FRAP 1.65–59.89. The highest TPC was given by ethanol leaf extracts (49.55 ± 1.45 g GAE/100 g), while the highest TFC was for n-hexane leaf extracts (9.68 ± 0.210 g QE/100 g). The TPC of leaves extract had a significantly positive correlation with AAI DPPH, CUPRAC, and FRAP. AAI DPPH, AAI CUPRAC, and AAI FRAP of leaves and fruit extract of crystal guava showed a significantly positive correlation. In general, leaves extract had strong antioxidant activity by the three methods. For the highest antioxidant activity, ethanol was the best solvent for extraction leaves and ethyl acetate for extraction fruit of crystal guava. The TPC in leaves extract contributed to the antioxidant activity by DPPH, CUPRAC, and FRAP methods. The Antioxidant activity of leaves and fruit extracts of crystal guava was linear by the three methods.