Potential Use and Challenges of Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment and Conservation in Game Lodges and Resorts in KenyaRead the full article
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Hepatoprotective Effects of a Novel Trihoney against Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Comparative Study with Atorvastatin
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disorder worldwide with no curative therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of a novel Trihoney against biochemical and histological manifestations of NAFLD in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Methodology. Forty-eight male New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were grouped into normal diet (C), normal diet with 0.6 g/kg/day of Trihoney (C + H), 1% cholesterol diet (HCD), 1% cholesterol diet with 0.3 g/kg/day of Trihoney (HCD + H1), 1% cholesterol diet with 0.6 g/kg/day of Trihoney (HCD + H2), and 1% cholesterol diet with 2 mg/kg/day of atorvastatin (HCD + At.). Animals were sacrificed after 12 weeks of treatment. Serum lipids and liver function test (LFT) were measured prior to and at the endpoint of the experiment for total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and total bilirubin (T. Bil.). Liver was processed for histopathology study. Liver homogenate was analysed for oxidative stress parameters: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA). Results. Lipid analysis approved the induction of hypercholesterolemia. A significant elevation () of serum AST and ALT levels showed by the HCD group was compared to C and C + H groups. Trihoney exhibited a significant reduction () of AST and ALT compared to the HCD group. Likewise, AST and ALT reduced significantly in the HCD + At. group (). Trihoney supplementation induced significant () enhancement of SOD and GPx activities. Atorvastatin treatment was associated with significant () reduction of SOD and GPx activities in the liver. Trihoney and atorvastatin showed marked () reduction of hepatic lipid peroxidation. Trihoney showed histological protection against progression of NAFLD to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Atorvastatin exhibited no beneficial impact on hepatic architecture. Conclusion. Trihoney was able to maintain normal liver function and showed hepatoprotection against progression of NAFLD to NASH probably through hypocholesterolaemic and antioxidant functions.
Phenolic Content and Antioxidant, Antihyperlipidemic, and Antidiabetogenic Effects of Opuntia dillenii Seed Oil
Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gawl.) Haw. is a medicinal plant that is widely used by the Moroccan population to treat many diseases, thanks to its richness in bioactive molecules. This study aims to evaluate the total phenolic content and antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetogenic activities of O. dillenii seeds oil (ODSO), in vivo. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay and the Folin–Ciocalteu method were applied in this study to determine antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of ODSO, respectively. The antihyperlipidemic effect of the ODSO (2 ml/kg) was evaluated in the high-fat diet-fed albino mice, relying on lipid profile, blood glucose, and growth performance variations. Moreover, the preventive effect of ODSO was evaluated against alloxan monohydrate-induced diabetes in albino mice. ODSO had the highest total phenolic content (518.18 ± 14.36 mg EAC/kg) and DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.38 ± 0.08 mg/mL). Furthermore, ODSO showed a significant antidiabetogenic effect by reducing bodyweight loss, blood sugar level rise, and mortality rate caused by alloxan in albino mice. Then, ODSO has exhibited a significant antihyperlipidemic effect by improving the lipid profile disorder and glucose level rise in the blood, produced by the high-fat diet-fed albino mice. Results suggest that antidiabetogenic and antihyperlipidemic activities of ODSO correlate to the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of this oil. Hence, this plant could be a significant source of medically important critical compounds.
Oral Health of Children with Autism: The Influence of Parental Attitudes and Willingness in Providing Care
Objectives. Parents play a crucial role in health-related practices of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study assessed the association between oral health status and oral health practices of children with ASD in relation to their parental attitudes and comfort in providing oral care. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 75 children with ASD attending the special needs schools in Eastern Saudi Arabia from 2015–2018. Parents responded to a self-administered questionnaire assessing their attitudes toward oral health and comfort in providing oral care for children. The clinical examination assessed dental caries (decayed, extracted, and filled: (DMF and def)), gingival disease, and plaque accumulation. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationship between the study variables, while ANOVA followed by post hoc was used to assess the differences. Results. Prevalence of dental caries in primary teeth was 76% and 68% in the permanent dentition with a mean of 0.85 ± 1.9 and 1.03 ± 2.9, respectively. Thirty-one participants had gingival problems, mean gingival index was 1.03 ± 0.88, and mean plaque index was 0.95 ± 0.43. Half of the parents supervised their children’s brushing, which was significantly associated with plaque accumulation ( = 0.004), gingival disease ( < 0.0001), and def ( = 0.02). Parental attitudes and comfort in providing oral health care were not associated with oral health status of ASD children; however, positive parental attitudes were associated with lower sugar consumption ( = 0.043). An inverse correlation was observed between comfort in providing oral health care with gingival and plaque scores r = −0.18 and −0.23, respectively. Conclusions. The data are indicative of poor oral health practices and status among ASD children. Parents’ oral health care practices seem to be reactive rather than proactive. Positive parental attitudes were associated with lower sugar consumption. Greater comfort in providing care was negatively correlated with plaque accumulation and gingival problems.
The Role of the Dental Surgeon in Controlling the Dissemination of COVID-19: A Literature Review
As early as December 2019 in the province of Hubei, China, contamination of patients with pneumonia of an unknown etiology occurred. These patients presented with symptoms such as coughing, sore throat, malaise, diarrhea, high fever, and dyspnea. This emerging disease was named COVID-19 due to being part of the group of coronaviruses (CoVs) belonging to the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae, in the Coronaviridae family and in the Nidovirales order. COVID-19 is most commonly transmitted through speech, coughing, sneezing, and salivary sputum. Because dental professionals work closely with the oral cavity, it is imperative that infection prevention controls are strictly adhered to. It is important that the dental profession treats patients while also limiting the possible contamination through the production of aerosol in the dental environment. Furthermore, the dental professional also has a key role in raising awareness and guidance amongst the population concerning COVID-19 related biosafety measures. This literature review aims to inform dental professionals about the COVID-19 pandemic and to present the implications of the virus to the dentist. Dental professionals are considered to be at high risk for contracting SARS-CoV-2.
Application of Bamboo Plants in Nine Aspects
Bamboo forests are undoubtedly one of the most abundant nontimber plants on Earth and cover a wide area of tropical and subtropical regions around the world. This amazing plant has unique rapid growth and can play an important role in protecting our planet from pollution and improving the soil. Bamboo can be used as a biofuel, food, and for architecture and construction applications and plays a large role in the local economy by creating job opportunities. The aim of this paper is to review the extraordinary tropical plant bamboo by explaining the mechanisms related to the growth and strength of bamboo and identifying ways to utilize bamboo in industry, employment, climate change mitigation, and soil erosion reduction.
Reproductive Health Right Practice among Preparatory School Female Students of Assela Town, Arsi Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia
Introduction. Knowledge and practice toward reproductive health right (RHR) is critical to protect young women, especially school girls, from unwanted reproductive outcomes as improving access to reproductive health services. However, the majority of young people including female secondary school students in Ethiopia have very little knowledge on the youth’s reproductive health rights. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge and practice toward reproductive health right among preparatory female students in Assela Town, Arsi Zone, Ethiopia. Methods. A study was conducted among 403 preparatory school female students in Assela Town. Simple random sampling was employed to select the subjects, and a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. The collected data were entered using EPI Info version 3.5.4 and exported to SPSS version 21 for analysis. Descriptive and logistic regression analysis was carried out. Result. Sixty percent of girls discussed reproductive issues openly with their peers. About 94% of the respondents knew, at least, one contraceptive method; injectable (91.2%) was the most known type of contraceptives. Marital status, father occupation, discussion on sexual and reproductive issues, and having sexual partners were affecting the practice of reproductive health rights. Conclusions. Knowledge of the students was moderate on reproductive health right which was 70%. Practice of sexual and reproductive health rights was 22.6% among the study participants. It is recommended that promotion on sexual and reproductive health right through media is important.