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Antifungal Activity of Denture Base Resin Containing Nanozirconia: In Vitro Assessment of Candida albicans Biofilm
Objective. To evaluate the antimicrobial effects of different concentrations of zirconium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-ZrO2) reinforcement of poly(methyl) methacrylate (PMMA) on surface roughness and C. albicans biofilm. Methods. 20 heat-polymerized acrylic resin discs were conventionally made and divided into 4 groups (n = 5) according to nano-ZrO2 concentration: control (0% filler) and 3 experimental groups (2.5% (Z2.5), 5.0% (Z5.0), and 7.5% (Z7.5)). An optical profilometer was used for surface roughness evaluation, followed by Candida adherence assay. Specimens were sterilized, then immersed in cultured yeast (C. albicans), and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. After that, discs were rinsed before extracting the clustered pellets of Candida. The attached C. albicans was counted using the direct method after spreading on agar media and incubating for 48 hours. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test at α = 0.05. Results. Surface roughness was significantly increased with all modified groups compared with control (), which showed the lowest roughness value (0.027 ± 0.004 μm). There was no significant difference in the roughness value among reinforced groups (2.5, 5.0, and 7.5%) (), with Z7.5 showing the highest roughness value (0.042 ± 0.004 μm). Candida count was reduced as the nano-ZrO2 increased but not significantly (). Conclusions. The addition of different concentrations of nano-ZrO2 particles to PMMA increased the surface roughness compared with control; in contrast, insignificant reduction of C. albicans biofilm was detected.
Application of High-Resolution Remote-Sensing Data for Land Use Land Cover Mapping of University Campus
The study of Land Use Land Cover (LULC) is essential to understanding how land has been altered in recent years and what has caused the processes behind the change. This is significant for the future development of the area, particularly on the campus of the Universitas Padjadjaran Jatinangor. The purpose of this study was to apply remote-sensing techniques to map a university campus and vicinity by comparing the area of urban green space (UGS) and floor area ratios (FARs) of the campus in 2015 and 2017. Additionally, surface runoff analysis was also conducted. For our research, we used WorldView-2’s high-resolution satellite imagery with a resolution of 0.46 m in the Universitas Padjadjaran (Padjadjaran University, or Unpad) Jatinangor campus, Jawa Barat, Indonesia. Our approach was to interpret the imagery by running the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to distinguish UGS and FAR and using digital elevation model (DEM) interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data with hydrologic analysis to identify the direction of surface runoff. The results obtained are as follows: the UGS remained more extensive compared with FAR, but the difference decreased over time owing to infrastructure development. Surface runoff has tended to flow toward the southeast in direct relation to the slope configuration.
Attitudes and Barriers to Breastfeeding among Mothers in Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Background. Breastfeeding provides unsurpassed natural nutrition to the newborn and infant. It has a nearly perfect mix of food elements and vitamins that infants need to grow up. Nonetheless, the tendency for breastfeeding remains below the expected levels. Objectives. To explore the attitudes and barriers to breastfeeding among mothers in Princess Nourah Abdulrahman University (PNU), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted, from January to April 2019; 399 PNU students, employees, and faculty mothers aged 18 years and above with experience of childbirth and breastfeeding were included in the study using a predesigned validated questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of four scales: sociodemographic, attitude toward breastfeeding, barriers to breastfeeding, and induced lactation knowledge. Results. The participants’ mean age was 34.1 ± 10.4 years; most (87.8%) were Saudi; 92.8% were married; 62% had a bachelor’s degree; and 43% had “enough income.” While 40% of the mothers reported >6 months “exclusive breastfeeding” for the first baby, only 34.8% did so for the last baby, and 54.5% did so for most of all babies altogether. The mothers’ parity ranged between 1 birth and 4 births in 23.5% and 17.5% of the participants, respectively. An overall score of breastfeeding attitude averaged 59.6 ± 7.3. The tendency for scoring a negative attitude to breastfeeding was significantly reported () among 127 (31.8%) 31- to 40-year-old mothers; 153 (38.3%) bachelor’s degree holders; and 157 (39.3%) employees (χ2 (4) 14.6, p = 0.006; χ2 (4) 10.4, p = 0.034; and χ2 (4) 20.4, p < 0.001, respectively). “Mother’s illness” was the most commonly (63%) reported barrier to “not to breastfeed,” followed by “work” (45.5%) and “father not supporting breastfeeding” (14.8%). Conclusions. An overall negative attitude toward breastfeeding among PNU mothers was noted. Barriers included mother’s sickness and work. Efforts to minimize such negative attitudes and barriers among susceptible mothers are warranted.
The Role of Areca catechu Extract on Decreasing Viscosity of Vegetable Oils
The direct use of vegetable oil is constrained by vegetable oils’ viscosity, which is relatively high. Therefore, this study discusses reducing the vegetable oils viscosity molecularly, using natural additives of Areca extract. The role of Areca extract on diminishing the viscosity of vegetable oil was simulated utilizing HyperChem software. Then, the viscosity was verified using the ASTM D445 method. The results show that the epicatechin in the Areca extract generates a local magnetic field on its aromatic ring that plays the role of energizing electron mobility in vegetable oil. On the one hand, increased electron mobility decreases oil polarity but, on the other hand, increases the London force via a temporary dipole charge. Simultaneously, it relaxes oil molecules that tend to increase molecule distance decreasing the London force. Since viscosity is proportional to the London force and oil polarity; thus, these three phenomena determine the role of Areca extract on the oil viscosity. The viscosity reduction is smaller at a larger number of the double bonds in the fatty acid chain since the local magnetic field’s induction on the electron spin is interrupted in the double bonds
The Persian Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire: Validation in Patients with Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain
Background. Illness perceptions may influence coping behaviors as well as treatment and recovery among patients with chronic pain including low back pain (LBP). These perceptions may vary across different conditions. The Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ) is used as an instrument to assess the patients’ perception of illness. Although the BIPQ has been previously translated into Persian, its psychometric properties have not been evaluated among patients with chronic nonspecific LBP. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of the Persian BIPQ in patients with chronic nonspecific LBP. Methods. 116 patients with chronic nonspecific LBP with a mean (standard deviation) age of 36.4 years (10.7) participated in this cross-sectional study. Fifty patients were reexamined after 10 to 12 days for test-retest reliability. Internal consistency reliability, construct validity, concurrent criterion validity, and structural validity were evaluated. The concurrent validity was examined by using the Short Form-36 Health Survey. Results. There were no floor and ceiling effects. Cronbach’s alpha for the total score was 0.90. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for test-retest reliability was 0.90. The standard error of measurement and the minimal detectable change was found to be 3.26 and 9.04, respectively. The convergent correlations confirmed the construct validity. The concurrent criterion validity was demonstrated by significant negative correlations with the SF-36. The Exploratory Factor Analysis produced the 2 factors (emotional illness representations and cognitive illness representations) with an eigenvalue >1.0 that jointly accounted for 58.86% of the total variance. Conclusion. The Persian BIPQ is a reliable and 2-factor instrument and can be used for assessing illness perception in patients with chronic nonspecific LBP.
Synthesis, Identification, and Biological Study for Some Complexes of Azo Dye Having Theophylline
This article includes the synthesis of heterocyclic azo dye of theophylline by coupling diazonium salt of 4-chloroaniline with theophylline which is, namely, 8-(1-(4-chlorophenyl)azo)theophylline (CPAT). The complexes of cobalt and nickel were prepared by reacting their ions with CPAT ligand in ethanol under 1 : 2 ratio metal-ligand. The CPAT ligand and its complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectrometry, electronic absorption spectroscopy, molar conductivity, and magnetic moment. The cobalt and nickel complexes show octahedral geometry having general formula [M(CPAT)2Cl2]. This article addresses the properties of CPAT dye such as photochromic properties. The CPAT dye exhibited obvious and desired changes under irradiation with visible light (405 nm), high sensitive for pH changes which refer to its ability to be analysis indicator. CPAT dye exhibited solvatochromic properties presenting red shift with polar solvent. The CPAT and its complexes show interesting antibiological activities towards Staph. aureus and E. coli bacteria and Aspergillus fungi.