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Volume 7, Pages 1567-1574
Research Article

Internal Iliac Artery Embolization for the Control of Severe Bladder Hemorrhage Secondary to Carcinoma: Long-Term Follow-Up

1Urology Department, Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
2Radiology Department, Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

Received 31 May 2007; Revised 1 August 2007; Accepted 2 August 2007

Academic Editor: Fray Marshall

Copyright © 2007 Ahmed El-Assmy and Tarek Mohsen.


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and long-term complications of internal iliac artery embolization as a palliative measure in the control of intractable hemorrhage from advanced bladder malignancy. From January 1998 through December 2005, seven patients underwent transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) of anterior division of internal iliac artery bilaterally for intractable bladder hemorrhage. After embolization, patients were followed for the efficacy of the procedure in controlling hematuria and complications. TAE was successful in immediate control of severe hemorrhage in all seven patients after a mean period of 4 days. At a mean (range) follow-up of 10 (6–12) months, the hemorrhage was permanently controlled in four (57%) patients. Three patients developed hematuria and required emergency admissions; two had mild hematuria and were managed conservatively, and the remaining one required a second attempt of embolization after 2 months from the first one. During the whole period of follow-up, there were no significant complications related to embolization. Internal iliac artery embolization is an effective and minimally invasive option when managing advanced bladder malignancies presenting with intractable bleeding. The long-term follow-up showed control of bleeding in the majority of such patients with no serious complications.