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Volume 7, Pages 1036-1045
Review Article

Neuromodulation for Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction – An Update

Department of Urology, Pinderfields General Hospital, Wakefield, WF1 4DG, UK

Received 3 April 2007; Accepted 9 May 2007

Academic Editor: Christopher F. Chapple

Copyright © 2007 Zahid Hussain and Simon C. W. Harrison.


The aim of this review is to provide an update on the use of neuromodulation using sacral nerve stimulation for the treatment of disorders of the lower urinary tract. Neuromodulation using the InterStim® system (Medtronic Inc.) is now accepted as an established therapeutic option for patients with detrusor overactivity, and for women with retention or severe voiding difficulties. However, the use of nerve stimulation in modulating lower urinary tract function has to be regarded as a technique that is in its infancy. Much has yet to be learned about the mechanism by which neuromodulation exerts its effects and there is a need to better define the clinical indications for the treatment. There is also work to be done in terms of optimising stimulation delivery, both in anatomical and electronic terms.