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Volume 10, Pages 2330-2347
Review Article

A Review of Three Simple Plant Models and Corresponding Statistical Tools for Basic Research in Homeopathy

1Department of Agroenvironmental Sciences and Technologies, University of Bologna, Italy
2Italian Society of Anthroposophical Medicine, Milan, Italy
3Association for Sensitive Crystallization, Sondrio, Italy
4Department of Statistical Sciences, University of Bologna, Italy

Received 23 July 2010; Revised 4 November 2010; Accepted 5 November 2010

Academic Editor: Joav Merrick

Copyright © 2010 Lucietta Betti et al.


In this paper, we review three simple plant models (wheat seed germination, wheat seedling growth, and infected tobacco plants) that we set up during a series of experiments carried out from 1991 to 2009 in order to study the effects of homeopathic treatments. We will also describe the set of statistical tools applied in the different models. The homeopathic treatment used in our experiments was arsenic trioxide (As2O3) diluted in a decimal scale and dynamized. Since the most significant results were achieved with the 45th decimal potency, both for As2O3 (As 45x) and water (W 45x), we here report a brief summary of these results. The statistical analysis was performed by using parametric and nonparametric tests, and Poisson distribution had an essential role when dealing with germination experiments. Finally, we will describe some results related to the changes in variability, which seems to be one of the targets of homeopathic treatment effect.