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Volume 10, Pages 1919-1931
Review Article

PSA and Beyond: The Past, Present, and Future of Investigative Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer

James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA

Received 30 July 2010; Revised 4 September 2010; Accepted 7 September 2010

Academic Editor: Scott Eggener

Copyright © 2010 Jeffrey Tosoian and Stacy Loeb.


The discovery of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as a biomarker represented a major discovery in the early diagnosis and monitoring of prostate cancer. However, the use of PSA is limited by the lack of specificity and an inability to differentiate indolent from life-threatening disease reliably at the time of diagnosis. A multitude of studies have aimed to improve the performance of PSA as well as identify additional biomarkers. The purpose of this study is to review available data on prostate cancer biomarkers for prostate cancer screening and prognostication, including prostatic acid phosphatase, PSA, PSA derivatives (PSA density, free PSA, pro PSA, and PSA kinetics), PCA3, GSTP1, AMACR, and other newly emerging molecular and genetic markers.