Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
TheScientificWorldJOURNAL
Volume 11, Pages 2536-2549
http://dx.doi.org/10.1100/2011/167973
Research Article

Spatial Variability and Application of Ratios between BTEX in Two Canadian Cities

1Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, N9B 3P4, Canada
2Air Health Science Division, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0K9, Canada
3Department of Geography, Nipissing University, North Bay, ON, N1B 8L7, Canada
4Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, N9B 3P4, Canada
5Department of Geography, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada

Received 5 November 2011; Accepted 23 December 2011

Academic Editor: Ki-Hyun Kim

Copyright © 2011 Lindsay Miller et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. A. Parra, L. González, D. Elustondo, J. Garrigó, R. Bermejo, and J. M. Santamaría, “Spatial and temporal trends of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in a rural area of northern Spain,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 370, no. 1, pp. 157–167, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. N. Sax, D. H. Bennett, S. N. Chillrud, J. Ross, P. L. Kinney, and J. D. Spengler, “A cancer risk assessment of inner-city teenagers living in New York City and Los Angeles,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 114, no. 10, pp. 1558–1566, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. I. Khoder, “Ambient levels of volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere of Greater Cairo,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 554–566, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. K. W. Whitworth, E. Symanski, and A. L. Coker, “Childhood lymphohematopoietic cancer incidence and hazardous air pollutants in Southeast Texas, 1995–2004,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 116, no. 11, pp. 1576–1580, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. “Statistics Canada 2008,” 2006 Community Profiles, July 2010, http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/index-eng.cfm.
  6. “Environment Canada,” Weather Office, September 2011, http://www.climate.weatheroffice.gc.ca/climate_normals/index_e.html.
  7. L. Miller, X. Xu, and I. Luginaah, “Spatial variability of volatile organic compound concentrations in Sarnia, Ontario, Canada,” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health A, vol. 72, no. 9, pp. 610–624, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. “Environment Canada. National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) Network,” June 2011, http://www.ec.gc.ca/rnspa-naps/default.asp?lang=En&n=5C0D33CF-1.
  9. A. Srivastava, B. Sengupta, and S. A. Dutta, “Source apportionment of ambient VOCs in Delhi City,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 343, no. 1–3, pp. 207–220, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. L. A. Smith, T. H. Stock, K. C. Chung et al., “Spatial analysis of volatile organic compounds from a community-based air toxics monitoring network in Deer Park, Texas, USA,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 128, no. 1–3, pp. 369–379, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. L. Miller, L. D. Lemke, X. Xu et al., “Intra-urban correlation and spatial variability of air toxics across an international airshed in Detroit, Michigan (USA) and Windsor, Ontario (Canada),” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 44, no. 9, pp. 1162–1174, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. R. Hoque, P. S. Khillare, T. Agarwal, V. Shridhar, and S. Balachandran, “Spatial and temporal variation of BTEX in the urban atmosphere of Delhi, India,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 392, no. 1, pp. 30–40, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. B. Barletta, S. Meinardi, F. S. Rowland et al., “Volatile organic compounds in 43 Chinese cities,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 39, no. 32, pp. 5979–5990, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. J. Buczynska, A. Krata, M. Stranger et al., “Atmospheric BTEX-concentrations in an area with intensive street traffic,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 311–318, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. P. C. Chiang, Y. C. Chiang, E. E. Chang, and S. C. Chang, “Characterizations of hazardous air pollutants emitted from motor vehicles,” Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry, vol. 56, no. 1–4, pp. 85–104, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. Liu, Y. Mu, Y. Zhang et al., “Atmospheric levels of BTEX compounds during the 2008 Olympic Games in the urban area of Beijing,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 408, no. 1, pp. 109–116, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. Gelencsér, K. Siszler, and J. Hlavay, “Toluene-benzene concentration ratio as a tool for characterizing the distance from vehicular emission sources,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 2869–2872, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. P. F. Nelson and S. M. Quigley, “The m,p-xylenes:ethylbenzene ratio. A technique for estimating hydrocarbon age in ambient atmospheres,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 659–662, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. Zhang, T. Wang, W. L. Chameides, C. Cardelino, D. R. Blake, and D. G. Streets, “Source characteristics of volatile organic compounds during high ozone episodes in Hong Kong, Southern China,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 8, no. 16, pp. 4983–4996, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. J. Wheeler, M. Smith-Doiron, X. Xu, N. L. Gilbert, and J. R. Brook, “Intra-urban variability of air pollution in Windsor, Ontario-Measurement and modeling for human exposure assessment,” Environmental Research, vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 7–16, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. O. Atari and I. N. Luginaah, “Assessing the distribution of volatile organic compounds using land use regression in Sarnia, Chemical Valley, Ontario, Canada,” Environmental Health, vol. 8, no. 1, article no. 16, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. “Environment Canada. National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI),” June 2011, http://www.ec.gc.ca/pdb/websol/querysite/query_e.cfm.
  23. M. M. Johnson, R. Williams, Z. Fan et al., “Participant-based monitoring of indoor and outdoor nitrogen dioxide, volatile organic compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among MICA-Air households,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 44, no. 38, pp. 4927–4936, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. K. F. Ho, S. C. Lee, H. Guo, and W. Y. Tsai, “Seasonal and diurnal variations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere of Hong Kong,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 322, no. 1–3, pp. 155–166, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. P. Bruno, M. Caselli, G. de Gennaro, L. Scolletta, L. Trizio, and M. Tutino, “Assessment of the impact produced by the traffic source on VOC level in the urban area of Canosa di Puglia (Italy),” Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, vol. 193, no. 1–4, pp. 37–50, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. X. M. Wang, G. Y. Sheng, J. M. Fu et al., “Urban roadside aromatic hydrocarbons in three cities of the Pearl River Delta, People's Republic of China,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 36, no. 33, pp. 5141–5148, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus