Table 1: Core components of the 3-level parent education program.

Core components
Parents of general youths (GenP)Parents of at-risk youths (RiskP)Parents with history of drug use (DrugP)

Enhancement of communication abilityBasic(1) Authoritarian parenting style
(2) Youth culture
(3) Communication skills
(4) Skills to develop good behavior of teens
(1) Authoritarian parenting style
(2) Youth culture
(3) Communication skills
(4) Skills to develop good behavior of teens
(1) Authoritarian parenting style
(2) Youth culture
(3) Communication skills
(4) Skills to develop good behavior of teens
Advanced       —(1) Skills to reinforce good behaviors
(2) Skills to make win-win behavioral contract
(3) Skills to manage problem behavior
(4) Skills to handle conflict
          —

Enhancement of preventing youth drug abuseBasic(1) Developmental needs of youths and relationship with deviant behaviors
(2) Family protective factors
(3) Drug abuse among youths in Hong Kong
(4) Skills to have early identification of youth drug use
(5) Community resources and help seeking
(1) Developmental needs of youths and its relationship with deviant behaviors
(2) Family protective factors
(3) Drug abuse among youths in Hong Kong
(4) Skills to have early identification of youth drug use
(5) Community resources and help seeking
(1) Developmental needs of youths and its relationship with deviant behaviors
(2) Family protective factors
(3) Drug abuse among youths in Hong Kong
(4) Skills to have early identification of youth drug use
(5) Community resources and help seeking

Enhancement of emotion managementAdvanced       —(1) Effect of emotion on parenting
(2) Skills to handle stress and emotion
(1) Effect of emotion on parenting
(2) Skills to handle stress and emotion

Prevention of intergenerational drug abuseAdvanced       —       —(1) Effect of parents’ drug use on children
(2) Skills to prevent intergenerational drug abuse