Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
TheScientificWorldJOURNAL
Volume 11 (2011), Pages 1788-1803
http://dx.doi.org/10.1100/2011/761768
Review Article

Cellular and Molecular Changes in Orthodontic Tooth Movement

1School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
2Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
3Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Applied Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Malaysia

Received 13 September 2011; Accepted 10 October 2011

Academic Editor: Salvatore Cuzzocrea

Copyright © 2011 Shahrul Hisham Zainal Ariffin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. Cardaropoli and L. Gaveglio, “The influence of orthodontic movement on periodontal tissues level,” Seminars in Orthodontics, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 234–245, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. V. Krishnan and Z. Davidovitch, “Cellular, molecular, and tissue-level reactions to orthodontic force,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 129, no. 4, pp. 469–e1, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  3. C. Dolce, J. Scott Malone, and T. T. Wheeler, “Current concepts in the biology of orthodontic tooth movement,” Seminars in Orthodontics, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 6–12, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. T. Bartzela, J. C. Türp, E. Motschall, and J. C. Maltha, “Medication effects on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement: a systematic literature review,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 135, no. 1, pp. 16–26, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  5. M. Taba, J. Kinney, A. S. Kim, and W. V. Giannobile, “Diagnostic biomarkers for oral and periodontal diseases,” Dental Clinics of North America, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 551–571, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  6. D. Bernardi, M. Zaninotto, and M. Plebani, “Requirements for improving quality in the measurement of bone markers,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 346, no. 1, pp. 79–86, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  7. R. S. Masella and M. Meister, “Current concepts in the biology of orthodontic tooth movement,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 129, no. 4, pp. 458–468, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  8. Y. Enokiya, S. Hashimoto, T. Muramatsu et al., “Effect of stretching stress on gene transcription related to early-phase differentiation in rat periodontal ligament cells,” The Bulletin of Tokyo Dental College, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 129–137, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  9. S. Domon, H. Shimokawa, Y. Matsumoto, S. Yamaguchi, and K. Soma, “In situ hybridization for matrix metalloproteinase-1 and cathepsin K in rat root-resorbing tissue induced by tooth movement,” Archives of Oral Biology, vol. 44, no. 11, pp. 907–915, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. S. Sprogar, T. Vaupotic, A. Cör, M. Drevenšek, and G. Drevenšek, “The endothelin system mediates bone modeling in the late stage of orthodontic tooth movement in rats,” Bone, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 740–747, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  11. S. D. Tan, R. Xie, J. Klein-Nulend et al., “Orthodontic force stimulates eNOS and iNOS in rat osteocytes,” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 255–260, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  12. P. J. Brooks, D. Nilforoushan, M. F. Manolson, C. A. Simmons, and S. G. Gong, “Molecular markers of early orthodontic tooth movement,” Angle Orthodontist, vol. 79, no. 6, pp. 1108–1113, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  13. F. Wehrhan, P. Hyckel, J. Ries et al., “Expression of Msx-1 is suppressed in bisphosphonate associated osteonecrosis related jaw tissue-etiopathology considerations respecting jaw developmental biology-related unique features,” Journal of Translational Medicine, vol. 8, article no. 96, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  14. T. Watanabe, K. Nakano, R. Muraoka et al., “Role of Msx2 as a promoting factor for Runx2 at the periodontal tension sides elicited by mechanical stress,” European Journal of Medical Research, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 425–431, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  15. E. Low, H. Zoellner, O. P. Kharbanda, and M. A. Darendeliler, “Expression of mRNA for osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa β ligand (RANKL) during root resorption induced by the application of heavy orthodontic forces on rat molars,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 128, no. 4, pp. 497–503, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  16. S. Adami, A. Zivelonghi, V. Braga et al., “Insulin-like growth factor-1 is associated with bone formation markers, PTH and bone mineral density in healthy premenopausal women,” Bone, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 244–247, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  17. G. Perinetti, M. Paolantonio, M. D'Attilio et al., “Alkaline phosphatase activity in gingival crevicular fluid during human orthodontic tooth movement,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 122, no. 5, pp. 548–556, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  18. A. A. A. Asma, R. Megat Abdul Wahab, and S. H. Zainal Ariffin, “Crevicular alkaline phosphatase activity during orthodontic tooth movement: canine retraction stage,” Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 228–233, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. S. H. Zainal Ariffin, M. F. Ellias, R. Megat Abdul Wahab, Y. Bakar, and S. Senafi, “Profiles of lactate dehydrogenase, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase in saliva during orthodontic treatment,” Sains Malaysiana, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 405–412, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  20. G. Perinetti, M. Paolantonio, M. D'Attilio et al., “Aspartate aminotransferase activity in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic treatment. A controlled short-term longitudinal study,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 74, no. 2, pp. 145–152, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  21. R. Megat Abdul Wahab, S. H. Zainal Ariffin, and K. Khazlina, “The activity of aspartate aminotransferase during canine retraction (Bodily Tooth Movement) in orthodontic treatment,” Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 553–558, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. R. Megat Abdul Wahab, S. H. Zainal Ariffin, and K. Khazlina, “Preliminary study of aspartate aminotransferase activity in gingival crevicular fluids during orthodontic tooth movement,” Journal of Applied Sciences, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 1393–1396, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. S. H. Rhee, J. Kang, and D. S. Nahm, “Cystatins and cathepsin B during orthodontic tooth movement,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 135, no. 1, pp. 99–105, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  24. Y. Sugiyama, M. Yamaguchi, M. Kanekawa et al., “The level of cathepsin B in gingival crevicular fluid during human orthodontic tooth movement,” European Journal of Orthodontics, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 71–76, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. J. Mah and N. Prasad, “Dentine phosphoproteins in gingival crevicular fluid during root resorption,” European Journal of Orthodontics, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 25–30, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. S. Kereshanan, P. Stephenson, and R. Waddington, “Identification of dentine sialoprotein in gingival crevicular fluid during physiological root resorption and orthodontic tooth movement,” European Journal of Orthodontics, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 307–314, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  27. L. R. Iwasaki, J. E. Haack, J. C. Nickel, R. A. Reinhardt, and T. M. Petro, “Human interleukin-1β and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist secretion and velocity of tooth movement,” Archives of Oral Biology, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 185–189, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. G. Başaran, T. Özer, F. A. Kaya, and O. Hamamci, “Interleukins 2, 6, and 8 levels in human gingival sulcus during orthodontic treatment,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 130, no. 1, pp. 7.e1–7.e6, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  29. E. Serra, G. Perinetti, M. D'Attilio et al., “Lactate dehydrogenase activity in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic treatment,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 124, no. 2, pp. 206–211, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. G. Perinetti, E. Serra, M. Paolantonio et al., “Lactate dehydrogenase activity in human gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic treatment: a controlled, short-term longitudinal study,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 411–417, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  31. G. Cantarella, R. Cantarella, M. Caltabiano, N. Risuglia, R. Bernardini, and R. Leonardi, “Levels of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 2 in human gingival crevicular fluid during initial tooth movement,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 130, no. 5, pp. 568–e11, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  32. A. M. Marcaccini, P. A. F. Amato, F. V. Leão, R. F. Gerlach, and J. T. L. Ferreira, “Myeloperoxidase activity is increased in gingival crevicular fluid and whole saliva after fixed orthodontic appliance activation,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 138, no. 5, pp. 613–616, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  33. Y. Nakamura, K. Noda, S. Shimoda et al., “Time-lapse observation of rat periodontal ligament during function and tooth movement, using microcomputed tomography,” European Journal of Orthodontics, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 320–326, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  34. S. Passarella, L. de Bari, D. Valenti, R. Pizzuto, G. Paventi, and A. Atlante, “Mitochondria and l-lactate metabolism,” FEBS Letters, vol. 582, no. 25-26, pp. 3569–3576, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  35. Y. Kitase, M. Yokozeki, S. Fujihara et al., “Analysis of gene expression profiles in human periodontal ligament cells under hypoxia: the protective effect of CC chemokine ligand 2 to oxygen shortage,” Archives of Oral Biology, vol. 54, no. 7, pp. 618–624, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  36. M. von Böhl, J. C. Maltha, J. W. von den Hoff, and A. M. Kuijpers-Jagtman, “Focal hyalinization during experimental tooth movement in beagle dogs,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 125, no. 5, pp. 615–623, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. L. Bonafe-Oliveira, R. M. Faltin, and V. E. Arana-Chavez, “Ultrastructural and histochemical examination of alveolar bone at the pressure areas of rat molars submitted to continuous orthodontic force,” European Journal of Oral Sciences, vol. 111, no. 5, pp. 410–416, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. K. Reitan and P. Rygh, “Tissue reactions in orthodontics,” in Orthodontics Current Principles and Techniques, T. M. Graber, R. L. Vanarsdall, and K. W. L. Vig, Eds., CV Mosby, St Louis, Mo, USA, 4th edition, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  39. R. M. Faltin, K. Faltin, F. G. Sander, and V. E. Arana-Chavez, “Ultrastructure of cementum and periodontal ligament after continuous intrusion in humans: a transmission electron microscopy study,” European Journal of Orthodontics, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 35–49, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. M. A. Casa, R. M. Faltin, K. Faltin, and V. E. Arana-Chavez, “Root resorption on torqued human premolars shown by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase histochemistry and transmission electron microscopy,” Angle Orthodontist, vol. 76, no. 6, pp. 1015–1021, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  41. M. D. Yazid, S. H. Zainal Ariffin, S. Senafi, M. A. Razak, and R. Megat Abdul Wahab, “Determination of the differentiation capacities of murines' primary mononucleated cells and MC3T3-E1 cells,” Cancer Cell International, vol. 10, article 42, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  42. S. H. Zainal Ariffin, I. Z. Zainol Abidin, M. D. Yazid, and R. Megat Abdul Wahab, “Differentiation analyses of adult suspension mononucleated peripheral blood cells of Mus musculus,” Cell Communication and Signaling, pp. 29–35, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  43. J. Kurol, P. Owman-Moll, and D. Lundgren, “Time-related root resorption after application of a controlled continuous orthodontic force,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 303–310, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  44. E. F. Harris, “Root resorption during orthodontic therapy,” Seminars in Orthodontics, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 183–194, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. I. Smale, J. Årtun, F. Behbehani, D. Doppel, M. Van't Hof, and A. M. Kuijpers-Jagtman, “Apical root resorption 6 months after initiation of fixed orthodontic appliance therapy,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 128, no. 1, pp. 57–67, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  46. T. Kumasako-Haga, T. Konoo, K. Yamaguchi, and H. Hayashi, “Effect of 8-hour intermittent orthodontic force on osteoclasts and root resorption,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 135, no. 3, pp. 278–e1, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. C. Estrela, M. R. Bueno, A. H. G. De Alencar et al., “Method to evaluate inflammatory root resorption by using cone beam computed tomography,” Journal of Endodontics, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 1491–1497, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  48. S. H. Zainal Ariffin, R. Megat Abdul Wahab, I. Ismail, N. M. Mahadi, and Z. Zainal Ariffin, “Stem cells, cytokines and their receptors,” Asia-Pacific Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  49. N. Shanthly, M. R. Aruva, K. Zhang, B. Mathew, and M. L. Thakur, “Stem cells: a regenerative pharmaceutical,” Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 205–216, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  50. S. H. Zainal Ariffin, R. Megat Abdul Wahab, I. Z. Zainol Abidin, S. Sahidan, M. M. Nor, and Z. Zainal Ariffin, “Stem cell in blood development,” Sains Malaysiana, vol. 34, pp. 21–26, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  51. I. Z. Zainol Abidin, S. H. Zainal Ariffin, R. Megat Abdul Wahab, S. Sahidan, and Z. Zainal Ariffin, “Osteoclast and osteoblast development of Mus musculus haemopoietic mononucleated cells,” Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 506–516, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. P. C. Yelick and J. P. Vacanti, “Dental stem cells,” in Handbook of Stem Cells, P. Andrews, J. Cibelli, R. Edwards et al., Eds., Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  53. G. Bluteau, H. U. Luder, C. De Bari, and T. A. Mitsiadis, “Stem cells for tooth engineering,” European Cells and Materials, vol. 16, pp. 1–9, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  54. M. K. Sutherland, J. C. Geoghegan, C. Yu et al., “Sclerostin promotes the apoptosis of human osteoblastic cells: a novel regulation of bone formation,” Bone, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 828–835, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  55. W. E. Roberts, S. S. Huja, and J. A. Roberts, “Bone modeling: biomechanics, molecular mechanisms, and clinical perspectives,” Seminars in Orthodontics, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 123–161, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  56. A. E. Grigoriadis, M. Kennedy, A. Bozec et al., “Directed differentiation of hematopoietic precursors and functional osteoclasts from human ES and iPS cells,” Blood, vol. 115, no. 14, pp. 2769–2776, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  57. T. P. Garlet, U. Coelho, C. E. Repeke, J. S. Silva, F. D. Q. Cunha, and G. P. Garlet, “Differential expression of osteoblast and osteoclast chemmoatractants in compression and tension sides during orthodontic movement,” Cytokine, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 330–335, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  58. R. A. Hannon and R. Eastell, “Bone markers and current laboratory assays,” Cancer Treatment Reviews, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 7–14, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  59. K. S. Lee, H. J. Kim, Q. L. Li et al., “Runx2 is a common target of transforming growth factor β1 and bone morphogenetic protein 2, and cooperation between Runx2 and Smad5 induces osteoblast-specific gene expression in the pluripotent mesenchymal precursor cell line C2C12,” Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol. 20, no. 23, pp. 8783–8792, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  60. J. Parkin and B. Cohen, “An overview of the immune system,” The Lancet, vol. 357, no. 9270, pp. 1777–1789, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  61. A. J. Zhu and M. P. Scott, “Incredible journey: how do developmental signals travel through tissue?” Genes and Development, vol. 18, no. 24, pp. 2985–2997, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  62. D. C. Morris, J. C. Randall, and H. C. Anderson, “Light microscopic localization of alkaline phosphatase in fetal bovine bone using immunoperoxidase and immunogold-silver staining procedures,” Journal of Histochemistry & Cytochemistry, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 323–327, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  63. D. Miao and A. Scutt, “Histochemical localization of alkaline phosphatase activity in decalcified bone and cartilage,” Journal of Histochemistry & Cytochemistry, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 333–340, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  64. T. Miyamoto and T. Suda, “Differentiation and function of osteoclasts,” The Keio Journal of Medicine, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  65. N. Alhashimi, L. Frithiof, P. Brudvik, and M. Bakhiet, “Orthodontic tooth movement and de novo synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 119, no. 3, pp. 307–312, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  66. G. Karsenty, “The complexities of skeletal biology,” Nature, vol. 423, no. 6937, pp. 316–318, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  67. G. E. Wise and G. J. King, “Mechanisms of tooth eruption and orthodontic tooth movement,” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 87, no. 5, pp. 414–434, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  68. H. Yasuda, N. Shima, N. Nakagawa et al., “A novel molecular mechanism modulating osteoclast differentiation and function,” Bone, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 109–113, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  69. T. Oshiro, A. Shiotani, Y. Shibasaki, and T. Sasaki, “Osteoclast induction in periodontal tissue during experimental movement of incisors in osteoprotegerin-deficient mice,” The Anatomical Record, vol. 266, no. 4, pp. 218–225, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  70. H. Kanzaki, M. Chiba, Y. Shimizu, and H. Mitani, “Dual regulation of osteoclast differentiation by periodontal ligament cells through RANKL stimulation and OPG inhibition,” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 887–891, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  71. H. Kanzaki, M. Chiba, A. Sato et al., “Cyclical tensile force on periodontal ligament cells inhibits osteoclastogenesis through OPG induction,” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 85, no. 5, pp. 457–462, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  72. M. Yamaguchi, Y. Ozawa, H. Mishima, N. Aihara, T. Kojima, and K. Kasai, “Substance P increases production of proinflammatory cytokines and formation of osteoclasts in dental pulp fibroblasts in patients with severe orthodontic root resorption,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 133, no. 5, pp. 690–698, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  73. L. T. Yam and A. J. Janckila, “Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP): a personal perspective,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1894–1896, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  74. V. A. de la Peña, P. Diz Dios, and R. Tojo Sierra, “Relationship between lactate dehydrogenase activity in saliva and oral health status,” Archives of Oral Biology, vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 911–915, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  75. N. Ozmeric, “Advances in periodontal disease markers,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 343, no. 1-2, pp. 1–16, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  76. B. Zappacosta, A. Manni, S. Persichilli et al., “Salivary thiols and enzyme markers of cell damage in periodontal disease,” Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 40, no. 9-10, pp. 661–665, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  77. A. Smidt, E. Nuni, and D. Keinan, “Invasive cervical root resorption: treatment rationale with an interdisciplinary approach,” Journal of Endodontics, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 1383–1387, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed