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TheScientificWorldJOURNAL
Volume 11, Pages 1877-1885
http://dx.doi.org/10.1100/2011/768350
Review Article

Activation of Neutrophils by Nanoparticles

Laboratoire de Recherche en Inflammation et Physiologie des Granulocytes, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Université du Québec, Laval, QC, H7V 1B7, Canada

Received 23 July 2011; Accepted 23 August 2011

Academic Editor: Claude Ostiguy

Copyright © 2011 David M. Goncalves et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The use of nanoparticles (NPs) has increased in the past few years in various fields, including defence, aerospace, electronics, biology, medicine, and so forth. and in applications such as diagnostic technology, bioimaging, and drug/gene delivery. Thus, human exposure to NPs and nanomaterials is unavoidable and will certainly expand in the future resulting in a growing interest in nanotoxicology, the study of toxicity of nanomaterials. A number of studies have reported the effects of NPs in respect to pulmonary inflammation by investigating in vitro activation of pulmonary cells with NPs and in vivo in a variety of models in which neutrophils appear to be the predominant leukocyte cell type in lungs and in bronchoalveolar lavages following inhalation or intratracheal instillation of NPs. Despite the fact that several studies have reported an increased number of neutrophils, the literature dealing with the direct activation of neutrophils by a given NP is poorly documented. This paper will summarize the current literature in this latter area of research and will end with a perspective view in which our laboratory will be involved in the following years.