The Scientific World Journal / 2012 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis in Border Collie Dogs in Japan: Clinical and Molecular Epidemiological Study (2000–2011)

Table 2

Summary of clinical features in Border Collies with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis*.

Stage
(months of age)
Clinical signs

Early
(15–20)
Altered characteristics; disregard for owner’s commands; loss of interest in play and other dogs; morbid fear of noise, humans, and unspecified things; hallucination; disorientation; biting; averse to going up and down stairs (especially down)

Middle
(19–23)
Fly-biting behavior; continuous shaking of the head; sudden halts during walks; uncooperativeness with other dogs; head tilt; chomping without food; tooth grinding; leg jerking; visual impairments (fear of darkness, unawareness of things such as food, and frequently hitting obstacles); aggressiveness; excitation; staggering; falling; toileting accidents; myoclonus; myoclonic seizure

Late to terminal
(22–32)
Wandering; hair-pulling disorder; circadian rhythm disorder; acoustic and cutaneous hyperesthesia; cognitive and emotional impairments; blindness; dysmetria; gait deficiency; convulsive seizure; face and mouth tic; chewing difficulty; lethargy; stupor; death (mean age 26.7 months, ranging from 23 to 32 months)

D a t a summarized from the information of 27 affected dogs.
D a t a from 17 affected dogs that died naturally without euthanasia.

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