Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2012, Article ID 390450, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1100/2012/390450
Review Article

Resilience as a Positive Youth Development Construct: A Conceptual Review

Department of Applied Social Studies, College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

Received 15 September 2011; Accepted 4 October 2011

Academic Editor: Joav Merrick

Copyright © 2012 Tak Yan Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Rutter, “Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms,” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 316–331, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. Gitterman, “Social work practice with vulnerable populations,” in Handbook of Social Work Practice with Vulnerable Populations, A. Gitterman, Ed., pp. 1–32, Columbia University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  3. A. S. Masten, “Resilience in developing systems: progress and promise as the fourth wave rises,” Development and Psychopathology, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 921–930, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. G. Windle, “What is resilience? A review and concept analysis,” Reviews in Clinical Gerontology, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 152–169, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. R. F. Catalano, M. L. Berglund, J. A. M. Ryan, H. S. Lonczak, and J. D. Hawkins, “Positive youth development in the United States: research findings on evaluations of positive youth development programs,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. 591, pp. 98–124, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. N. Garmezy, “A closing note: reflections on the future,” in Risk and Protective Factors in the Development of Psychopathology, J. Rolf, A. S. Masten, D. Cicchetti, K. Nuechterlein, and S. Weintraub, Eds., pp. 527–534, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  7. S. S. Luthar and E. Zigler, “Vulnerability and competence: a review of research on resilience in childhood,” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 6–22, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. S. Masten, K. Best, and N. Garmezy, “Resilience and development: contributions from the study of children who overcome adversity,” Development and Psychopathology, vol. 2, pp. 425–444, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  9. M. Rutter, “Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms,” in Risk and Protective Factors in the Development of Psychopathology, J. Rolf, A. S. Masten, D. Cicchetti, K. Nuechterlein, and S. Weintraub, Eds., pp. 181–214, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  10. E. E. Werner and R. S. Smith, Vulnerable but Invincible: A Study of Resilient Children, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 1982.
  11. E. E. Werner and R. S. Smith, Overcoming the Odds: High Risk Children from Birth to Adulthood, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, USA, 1992.
  12. H. B. Kaplan, “Toward an understanding of resilience: a critical review of definitions and models,” in Resilience and Development: Positive Life Adaptations, M. D. Glantz and J. R. Johnson, Eds., pp. 17–83, Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  13. S. S. Luthar, D. Cicchetti, and B. Becker, “The construct of resilience: a critical evaluation and guidelines for future work,” Child Development, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 543–562, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. E. Haskett, K. Nears, C. Sabourin Ward, and A. V. McPherson, “Diversity in adjustment of maltreated children: factors associated with resilient functioning,” Clinical Psychology Review, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 796–812, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. American Psychological Association (n.d.) The Road to Resilience, http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/road-resilience.aspx.
  16. E. Vanderbilt-Adriance and D. S. Shaw, “Conceptualizing and re-evaluating resilience across levels of risk, time, and domains of competence,” Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, vol. 11, no. 1-2, pp. 30–58, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. L. Benson, All Kids are Our Kids, Search Institute, Minneapolis, Minn, USA, 1997.
  18. N. Garmezy, “Reflections and commentary on risk, resilience, and development,” in Stress, Risk, and Resilience in Children and Adolescents: Processes, Mechanisms, and Interventions, R. J. Haggerty, L. R. Sherrod, N. Garmezy, and R. Rutter, Eds., pp. 1–19, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  19. G. E. Richardson, “The metatheory of resilience and resiliency,” Journal of Clinical Psychology, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 307–321, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. P. Y. W. Choi, C. K. Au, C. W. Tang et al., Making Young Tumblers: A Manual of Promoting Resilience in Schools and Families, Breakthrough, Hong Kong, 2003.
  21. K. Y. Wong and T. Y. Lee, “Professional discourse among social workers working with at-risk adolescents in Hong Kong: risk or resilience?” in Pathways to Resilience: A Handbook of Theory, Methods, and Intervention, M. Ungar, Ed., pp. 313–327, Sage, Thousand Oaks, Calif, USA, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  22. A. S. Masten and J. Obradović, “Competence and resilience in development,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1094, pp. 13–27, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. T. Nolte, J. Guiney, P. Fonagy, L. C. Mayes, and P. Luyten, “Interpersonal stress regulation and the development of anxiety disorders: an attachment-based developmental framework,” Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, vol. 5, article 55, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. D. Cicchetti, “Resilience under conditions of extreme stress: a multilevel perspective,” World Psychia, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 145–154, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  25. R. D. Romeo and B. S. McEwen, “Stress and the adolescent brain,” in Resilience in Children, B. M. Lester, A. Masten, and B. McEwen, Eds., pp. 202–214, New York Academy of Sciences, New York, NY, USA, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  26. B. E. Compas, “Psychobiological processes of stress and coping: implications for resilience in children and adolescents—comments on the papers of Romeo & McEwen and Fisher et al,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1094, pp. 226–234, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. B. W. Smith, “Vulnerability and resilience as predictors of pain and affect in women with arthritis,” Dissertation Abstracts International Part B, vol. 63, no. 3, article 1575, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  28. E. H. Grotberg, Tapping Your Inner Strength: How to Find the Resilience to Deal with Anything, New Harbinger, Oakland, Calif, USA, 1999.
  29. D. H. Hepworth, R. H. Rooney, and J. Larsen, Direct Social Work Practice: Theory and skills, Brooks Cole, Pacific Grove, Calif, USA, 6th edition, 2002.
  30. A. S. Masten and M. Reed, “Resilience in development,” in Handbook of Positive Psychology, C. R. Snyder and S. J. Lopez, Eds., Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  31. N. P. Genero, “Culture, resiliency, and mutual psychological development,” in Resiliency in African-American Families, H. I. McCubbin, E. A. Thompson, A. I. Thompson, and J. A. Futrell, Eds., pp. 31–48, Sage, Thousand Oaks, Calif, USA, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  32. H. I. McCubbin, E. A. Thompson, A. I. Thompson, and J. A. Futrell, Resiliency in African-American Families, Sage, Thousand Oaks, Calif, USA, 1998.
  33. T. Y. Lee, W. M. Kwong, C. K. Cheung, M. Ungar, and M. Y. L. Cheung, “Children's resilience-related beliefs as a predictor of positive child development in the face of adversities: implications for interventions to enhance children's quality of life,” Social Indicators Research, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 437–453, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. S. Masten, “Humor and competence in school-aged children,” Child Development, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 461–473, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. P. Fonagy, M. Steele, H. Steele, A. Higgitt, and M. Target, “The Emanuel Miller Memorial Lecture 1992. The theory and practice of resilience,” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 231–257, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. C. C. Moran and M. M. Massam, “Differential influences of coping humor and humor bias on mood,” Behavioral Medicine, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 36–42, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. W. Ruch and G. A. Kohler, “Temperament approach to humor,” in The Sense of Humor: Explorations of a Personality Characteristic, W. Ruch, Ed., pp. 203–228, Mouton de Gruyter, New York, Ny, USA, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  38. N. Dixon, “Humor: a cognitive alternative to stress,” in Anxiety and Stress, C. D. Spielberger and I. G. Sarason, Eds., pp. 281–289, Hemisphere, Washington, DC, USA, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  39. P. Noller, J. A. Feeney, and C. Peterson, Personal Relationships across the Lifespan, Psychology Press, Sussex, UK, 2001.
  40. J. Hage and B. F. Meeker, Social Causality, Unwin Hyman, Boston, Mass, USA, 1988.
  41. R. Larson, “Positive youth development, willful adolescents, and mentoring,” Journal of Community Psychology, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 677–689, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. Roth, J. Brooks-Gunn, L. Murray, and W. Foster, “Promoting healthy adolescents: synthesis of youth development program evaluations,” Journal of Research on Adolescence, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 423–459, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. Sun and D. Stewart, “Development of population-based resilience measures in the primary school setting,” Health Education, vol. 107, no. 6, pp. 575–599, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. B. J. Gomez and P. M. M. Ang, “Promoting positive youth development in schools,” Theory into Practice, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 97–104, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. C. P. Bradshaw, J. S. Brown, and S. F. Hamilton, “Bridging positive youth development and mental health services for youth with serious behavior problems,” Child and Youth Care Forum, vol. 37, no. 5-6, pp. 209–226, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. P. Cohen, J. Cohen, J. Teresi, M. Marchi, and C. N. Velez, “Problems in the measurement of latent variables in structural equations causal models,” Applied Psychological Measurement, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 183–192, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  47. D. P. Heise, “Employing nominal variables, induced variables, and block variables in path analysis,” Sociological Methods & Research, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 147–173, 1972. View at Google Scholar
  48. L. Brendtro and S. Larson, “The resilience code: finding greatness in youth,” Reclaiming Child & Youth, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 194–200, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  49. A. B. Balsano, E. Phelps, C. Theokas, J. V. Lerner, and R. M. Lerner, “Patterns of early adolescents' participation in youth development programs having positive youth development goals,” Journal of Research on Adolescence, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 249–259, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. R. M. Lerner, J. V. Lerner, J. B. Almerigi et al., “Positive youth development, participation in community youth development programs, and community contributions of fifth-grade adolescents: findings from the first wave of the 4-H study of positive youth development,” Journal of Early Adolescence, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 17–71, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. J. B. Simon, J. J. Murphy, and S. M. Smith, “Understanding and fostering family resilience,” Family Journal, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 427–436, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. E. Benson, “Make new friends but keep the old: peers and the transition to college,” Advances in Life Course Research, vol. 12, pp. 309–334, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. T. D. Cook, M. R. Herman, M. Phillips, and R. A. Settersten Jr., “Some ways in which neighborhoods, nuclear families, friendship groups, and schools jointly affect changes in early adolescent development,” Child Development, vol. 73, no. 4, pp. 1283–1309, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. S. F. Hamilton, M. A. Hamilton, and K. Pittman, “Principles for youth development,” in The Youth Development Handbook: Coming of Age in American Communities, S. F. Hamilton and M. A. Hamilton, Eds., pp. 3–22, Sage, Thousand Oaks, Calif, USA, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  55. P. C. Scales, P. L. Benson, N. Leffert, and D. A. Blyth, “Contribution of developmental assets to the prediction of thriving among adolescents,” Applied Developmental Science, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 27–46, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  56. L. M. Wagener, J. L. Furrow, P. E. King, N. Leffert, and P. Benson, “Religious involvement and developmental resources in youth,” Review of Religious Research, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 271–284, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. N. G. Guerra and C. P. Bradshaw, “Linking the prevention of problem behaviors and positive youth development: core competencies for positive youth development and risk prevention,” New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, vol. 2008, no. 122, pp. 1–17, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. M. F. Scheier and C. S. Carver, “Adapting to cancer: the importance of hope and purpose,” in Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer, A. Baum and B. L. Andersen, Eds., pp. 15–36, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, USA, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  59. S. Lewin-Bizan, E. P. Bowers, and R. M. Lerner, “One good thing leads to another: cascades of positive youth development among American adolescents,” Development and Psychopathology, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 759–770, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. S. Gestsdóttir and R. M. Lerner, “Intentional self-regulation and positive youth development in early adolescence: findings from the 4-H study of positive youth development,” Developmental Psychology, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 508–521, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. E. Phelps, S. Zimmerman, A. E. A. Warren, H. Jeličić, A. von Eye, and R. M. Lerner, “The structure and developmental course of Positive Youth Development (PYD) in early adolescence: implications for theory and practice,” Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 571–584, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. A. M. Hines, J. Merdinger, and P. Wyatt, “Former foster youth attending college: resilience and the transition to young adulthood,” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 381–394, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. R. M. Lerner, Liberty: Thriving Civic Engagement among America's Youth, Sage, Thousand Oaks, Calif, USA, 2004.
  64. W. J. Mullin and M. Arce, “Resilience of families living in poverty,” Journal of Family Social Work, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 424–440, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. J. Heckhausen, “Developmental regulation of life-course transitions: a control theory approach,” in Paths to Successful Development: Personality in the Life Course, L. Pulkkinen and A. Caspi, Eds., pp. 257–280, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  66. E. K. Anthony, “Cluster profiles of youths living in urban poverty: factors affecting risk and resilience,” Social Work Research, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 6–17, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. L. G. Aspinwall and S. E. Taylor, “Modeling cognitive adaptation: a longitudinal investigation of the impact of individual differences and coping on college adjustment and performance,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 989–1003, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. F. Sevinç Göral, A. Kesimci, and T. Gençöz, “Roles of the controllability of the event and coping strategies on stress-related growth in a Turkish sample,” Stress and Health, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 297–303, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. M. B. Spencer, “Phenomenology and ecological systems theory: development of diverse groups,” in Handbook of Child Psychology, W. Damon and R. M. Lerner, Eds., vol. 1, pp. 829–893, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, USA, 6th edition, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  70. D. P. Swanson, M. B. Spencer, T. Dell'Angelo, V. Harpalani, and T. R. Spencer, “Identity processes and the positive youth development of African Americans: an explanatory framework,” New Directions for Youth Development, no. 95, pp. 73–99, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. K. Bogenschneider, “Family related prevention programs: an ecological risk/protective theory for building prevention programs, policies, and community capacity to support youth,” Family Relations, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 127–138, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. J. V. Lerner, E. Phelps, Y. Forman, and E. P. Bowers, “Positive youth development,” in Handbook of Adolescent Psychology, R. M. Lerner and L. Steinberg, Eds., vol. 1, pp. 524–558, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, USA, 3rd edition, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  73. L. J. Lengua, “The contribution of emotionality and self-regulation to the understanding of children's response to multiple risk,” Child Development, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 144–161, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. N. Park and C. Peterson, “Early intervention for the perspective of positive psychology,” Prevention & Treatment, vol. 6, no. 35, pp. 1–8, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  75. M. Rutter, “Resilience concepts and findings: implications for family therapy,” Journal of Family Therapy, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 119–144, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. D. S. Elliott, S. Menard, B. Rankin, A. Elliott, W. J. Wilson, and D. Huizinga, Good Kids from Bad Neighborhoods: Successful Development in Social Context, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2006.
  77. E. M. McCarroll, E. W. Lindsey, C. MacKinnon-Lewis, J. C. Chambers, and J. M. Frabutt, “Health status and peer relationships in early adolescence: the role of peer contact, self-esteem, and social anxiety,” Journal of Child and Family Studies, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 473–485, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. C. Dalbert, “Beliefs in a just world as a buffer against anger,” Social Justice Research, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 123–145, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. B. J. Zebrack and M. Chesler, “Health-related worries, self-image, and life outlooks of long-term survivors of childhood cancer,” Health and Social Work, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 245–256, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. B. Davies, J. Fernandez, and B. Nomer, Equity and Efficiency Policy in Community Care: Needs, Service Productivities, Efficiencies, and Their Implications, Ashgate, Aldershot, UK, 2000.
  81. G. I. Roisman, “Conceptual clarifications in the study of resilience,” American Psychologist, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 264–265, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. J. Gillham and K. Reivich, “Cultivating optimism in childhood and adolescence,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. 591, pp. 146–163, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. D. T. L. Shek and C. M. S. Ma, “Impact of the project P.A.T.H.S. on adolescent developmental outcomes in Hong Kong: findings based on seven waves of data,” International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health. In press.
  84. D. T. L. Shek and R. C. F. Sun, “Effectiveness of the tier 1 program of project P.A.T.H.S.: findings based on three years of program implementation,” TheScientificWorldJournal, vol. 10, pp. 1509–1519, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. L. Dolan, S. Kellam, and C. H. Brown, Short-Term Impact of a Mastery Learning Preventive Intervention on Early Risk Behaviors, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md, USA, 1989.
  86. R. F. Catalano, K. P. Haggerty, S. Oesterle, C. B. Fleming, and J. D. Hawkins, “The importance of bonding to school for healthy development: findings from the social development research group,” Journal of School Health, vol. 74, no. 7, pp. 252–261, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. J. L. Mahoney, D. L. Vandell, S. Simpkins, and N. Zarrett, “Adolescent out-of-school activities,” in Handbook of Adolescent Psychology, R. M. Lerner and L. Steinberg, Eds., vol. 2 of Contextual Influences on Adolescent Development, pp. 228–269, 3rd edition, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  88. R. R. Greene, “Risk and resilience theory: a social work perspective,” in Human Behavior Theory and Social Work Practice, pp. 315–343, Aldine, London, UK, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  89. F. Walsh, “Families in later life: challenges and opportunities,” in The Expanded Family Life Cycle, B. Carter and M. McGoldrick, Eds., pp. 307–326, 3rd edition, 1999. View at Google Scholar