Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2012, Article ID 450685, 23 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1100/2012/450685
Research Article

An Adaptive Framework for Selecting Environmental Monitoring Protocols to Support Ocean Renewable Energy Development

1Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, South Ferry Road, Narragansett, RI 02882, USA
2Coastal Resources Center and Rhode Island Sea Grant, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI 02882, USA
3Rhode Island Coastal Resources Management Council, South Kingstown, RI 02879, USA
4College of the Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA
5College of Engineering, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI 02882, USA

Received 17 August 2012; Accepted 23 September 2012

Academic Editors: A. Azzellino and J. P. Kofoed

Copyright © 2012 Emily J. Shumchenia et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. W. Boehlert and A. B. Gill, “Environmental and ecological effects of ocean renewable energy development,” Oceanography, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 68–81, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. R. Inger, M. J. Attrill, S. Bearhop et al., “Marine renewable energy: potential benefits to biodiversity? An urgent call for research,” Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 1145–1153, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. B. Gill, “Offshore renewable energy: ecological implications of generating electricity in the coastal zone,” Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 605–615, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. ICES (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea), “Report of the workshop on effects of offshore windfarms on marine benthos—facilitating a closer international collaboration throughout the North Atlantic region (WKEOMB),” Bremerhaven, Germany, March 2012.
  5. BOEM (U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management), BOEM Environmental Studies Program—Studies Development Plan FY, 2013-2015, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC, USA, 2012.
  6. V. Stelzenmüller, P. Breen, T. Stamford et al., “Monitoring and evaluation of spatially managed areas: a generic framework for implementation of ecosystem based marine management and its application,” Marine Policy, vol. 37, pp. 149–164, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. D. Wilhelmsson, T. Malm, R. Thompson et al., Greening Blue Energy: Identifying and Managing the Biodiversity Risks and Opportunities of Offshore Renewable Energy, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, 2010.
  8. OSPAR, Guidelines on Quality Assurance for Biological Monitoring in the OSPAR Area, OSPAR Commission Agreement, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2002.
  9. J. S. Link, “Translating ecosystem indicators into decision criteria,” ICES Journal of Marine Science, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 569–576, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. F. Samhouri, P. S. Levin, C. A. James, J. Kershner, and G. Williams, “Using existing scientific capacity to set targets for ecosystem-based management: a puget sound case study,” Marine Policy, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 508–518, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. M. Carey and M. J. Keough, “The variability of estimates of variance, and its effect on power analysis in monitoring design,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 225–241, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. H. M. Leslie and K. L. McLeod, “Confronting the challenges of implementing marine ecosystem-based management,” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 540–548, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. I. Muxika, Á. Borja, and J. Bald, “Using historical data, expert judgement and multivariate analysis in assessing reference conditions and benthic ecological status, according to the European Water Framework Directive,” Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 55, no. 1–6, pp. 16–29, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. H. L. Rees, J. L. Hyland, K. Hylland, C. S. L. M. Clarke, J. C. Roff, and S. Ware, “Environmental indicators: utility in meeting regulatory needs. An overview,” ICES Journal of Marine Science, vol. 65, no. 8, pp. 1381–1386, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. B. P. Lapeña, K. M. Wijnberg, S. J. M. H. Hulscher, and A. Stein, “Environmental impact assessment of offshore wind farms: a simulation-based approach,” Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1110–1118, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. B. P. Lapeña, K. M. Wijnberg, S. J. M. H. Hulscher, and A. Stein, “Simulation-based impact assessment of offshore wind farms on seabirds,” Journal of Sustainability Science and Management, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 107–117, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. B. P. Lapeña, K. M. Wijnberg, A. Stein, and S. J. M. H. Hulscher, “Spatial factors affecting statistical power in testing marine fauna displacement,” Ecological Applications, vol. 21, pp. 2756–2769, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  18. MMS (Minerals Management Service), Alternative Energy Programmatic EIS: Potential Impacts of Alternative Energy Development on the OCS and Analysis of Potential Mitigation Measures, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC, USA, 2007.
  19. J. Rice, C. Arvanitidis, A. Borja et al., “Indicators for sea-floor integrity under the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive,” Ecological Indicators, vol. 12, pp. 174–184, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus