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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 462467, 8 pages
Review Article

Physicochemical Evaluation of the Upper Litani River Watershed, Lebanon

1Environmental Department, Associated Consulting Engineers, P.O. Box 11-3446, Beirut, Lebanon
2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236, Beirut, Lebanon
3Environmental Unit, Litani River Authority, P.O. Box 11-3732, Beirut, Lebanon

Received 14 November 2011; Accepted 10 January 2012

Academic Editor: Hind A. Beydoun

Copyright © 2012 Mark Saadeh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study aims to determine the extent of groundwater damage in the Upper Litani River Basin (ULRB) after years of water mismanagement and overfertilization in what is considered to be Lebanon’s largest fertile area. Physical and chemical samples were collected between 2005 and 2010 and analyzed using “The Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater” (APHA, AWWA) in order to determine the extent of this pollution. The parameters included pH, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, phosphate, dissolved oxygen, and total dissolved solids.