Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 571434, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1100/2012/571434
Research Article

Associations between Pathological Gambling and Psychiatric Comorbidity among Help-Seeking Populations in Hong Kong

1Department of Applied Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hunghom, Hong Kong
2Public Policy Research Institute, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
3Department of Social Work, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
4Kiang Wu Nursing College of Macau, Macau
5Division of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Kentucky Children's Hospital, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40506, USA
6Tung Wah Group of Hospitals Even Centre, Hong Kong

Received 28 September 2011; Accepted 8 November 2011

Academic Editor: Joav Merrick

Copyright © 2012 Daniel T. L. Shek et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. W. Abbott, “What do we know about Gambling and Problem Gambling in New Zealand?” Report Number Seven of the New Zealand Gaming Survey, The Department of Internal Affairs, Wellington, New Zealand, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  2. M. Krishnan and J. Orford, “Gambling and the family: from the stress-coping-support perspective,” International Gambling Studies, vol. 2, pp. 339–409, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  3. D. W. Black, P. O. Monahan, M. Temkit, and M. Shaw, “A family study of pathological gambling,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 141, no. 3, pp. 295–303, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, “Evaluation Study on the Impacts of Gambling Liberalization in Nearby Cities on Hong Kong Peoples’ Participation in Gambling Activities and Development of Counselling and Treatment Services for Problem Gamblers 2008,” http://www.hab.gov.hk/file_manager/en/documents/policy_responsibilities/others/HKPUFinalReport2009_e.pdf.
  5. K.C. Fong and B. Ozorio, “Gambling participation and prevalence estimates of pathological gambling in a far-east gambling city: macao,” UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal, vol. 9, pp. 15–27, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  6. Ministry of Community Development, Youth and Sports Singapore Government, “More than half of Singapore gambles; But only 2 in 100 at risk of gambling addiction,” http://app1.mcys.gov.sg/Portals/0/Summary/pressroom/SporeGambles.pdf.
  7. D. W. Black and T. Moyer, “Clinical features and psychiatric comorbidity of subjects with pathological gambling behavior,” Psychiatric Services, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 1434–1439, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. Ibáñez, C. Blanco, E. Donahue et al., “Psychiatric comorbidity in pathological gamblers seeking treatment,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 158, no. 10, pp. 1733–1735, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. N. M. Petry, F. S. Stinson, and B. F. Grant, “Comorbidity of DSM-IV pathological gambling and other psychiatric disorders: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 66, no. 5, pp. 564–574, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. H. Pietrzak, B. J. Morasco, C. Blanco, B. F. Grant, and N. M. Petry, “Gambling level and psychiatric and medical disorders in older adults: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions,” American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 301–313, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. T. Petersen, C. F. Andreotti, I. Chelminski, D. Young, and M. Zimmerman, “Do comorbid anxiety disorders impact treatment planning for outpatients with major depressive disorder?” Psychiatry Research, vol. 169, no. 1, pp. 7–11, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R.C. Kessler, I. Hwang, R. LaBrie et al., “The prevalence and correlates of DSM-IV pathological gambling in the national comorbidity survey replication,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 38, pp. 1351–1360, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  13. N. El-Guebaly, S. B. Patten, S. Currie et al., “Epidemiological associations between gambling behavior, substance use & mood and anxiety disorders,” Journal of Gambling Studies, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 275–287, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. Y. S. Choi, J. H. Park, and G. H. Hong, “Psychiatric comorbidity and the clinical characteristics of pathological gamblers seeking admission treatment,” European Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 7, p. S561, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  15. O. Kausch, “Patterns of substance abuse among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers,” Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 263–270, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. K. R. Thomsen, M. B. Callesena, J. Linnet, M. L. Kringelbach, and A. Møller, “Severity of gambling is associated with severity of depressive symptoms in pathological gamblers,” Behavioural Pharmacology, vol. 20, pp. 527–536, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  17. E. Becoña, M. Del Carmen Lorenzo, and M. J. Fuentes, “Pathological gambling and depression,” Psychological Reports, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 635–640, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. A. Thorson, F. C. Powell, and M. Hilt, “Epidemiology of gambling and depression in an adult sample,” Psychological Reports, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 987–994, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. Blum, J. G. Cull, E. R. Braverman, and D. E. Comings, “Reward deficiency syndrome,” American Scientist, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 132–145, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. A. McCormick, “Disinhibition and negative affectivity in substance abusers with and without a gambling problem,” Addictive Behaviors, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 331–336, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. McIntyre, C. O’Donovan, R. Milev, J. M. L. Melledo, J. C. Bisserbe, and M. Zimmerman, “Frequency and correlates of gambling problems in depressed and bipolar outpatients,” Tech. Rep. Proposal#2280, OPGRC, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  22. M. J. Cho, B. J. Hahm, T. Suh, G. H. Suh, S. J. Cho, and C. K. Lee, “Comorbid mental disorders among the patients with alcohol abuse and dependence in Korea,” Journal of Korean medical science, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 236–241, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. L. R. Derogatis, Brief Symptom Inventory, Clinical Psychometric Research, Minneapolis, Minn, USA, 1992.
  24. L. R. Derogatis, Brief Symptom Inventory: Administration, Scoring, and Procedures Manual, National Computer Systems, Minneapolis, Minn, USA, 1993.
  25. K. K. Morlan and S. Y. Tan, “Comparison of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and the Brief Symptom Inventory,” Journal of Clinical Psychology, vol. 54, pp. 885–894, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  26. D. F. K. Wong, “Differential impacts of stressful life events and social support on the mental health of mainland chinese immigrant and local youth in hong kong: a resilience perspective,” British Journal of Social Work, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 236–252, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. D. F. K. Wong, D. Lam, P. Yan, and M. Hung, “The impacts of acculturative stress and social competence on the mental health of Mainland Chinese immigrant youth in Hong Kong,” British Journal of Social Work, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 1009–1024, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. D. F. K. Wong and H. X. Song, “The resilience of migrant workers in Shanghai China: the roles of migration stress and meaning of migration,” International Journal of Social Psychiatry, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 131–143, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. B. First, R. L. Spitzer, M. Gibbon, and J. B. W. Williams, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders, Research Version, Non-patient Edition (SCID-I/NP), New York State Psychiatric Institute, Biometrics Research, New York, NY, USA, 2002.
  30. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Text Revision, American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC, USA, 4th edition, 2000.
  31. E. So, I. Kam, C. M. Leung, A. Pang, and L. Lam, “The Chinese-bilingual SCID-I/P Project: stage 2—reliability for anxiety disorders, adjustment disorders, and “no diagnosis”,” Hong Kong Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 19–40, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. E. So, I. Kam, C. M. Leung, D. Chung, Z. Liu, and S. Fong, “The Chinese-bilingual SCID-I/P Project: stage 1—reliability for mood disorders and schizophrenia,” Hong Kong Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 7–39, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. T. McLellan, L. Luborsky, J. Cacciola et al., “New data from the addiction severity index. Reliability and validity in three centers,” Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, vol. 173, no. 7, pp. 412–423, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. T. McLellan, C. P. O'Brien, D. S. Metzger, A. I. Alterman, J. Cornish, and H. Urschel, “How effective is substance abuse treatment—compared to what?” in Addictive States. Research Publications: Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease, C. P. O'Brien and J. H. Jaffe, Eds., pp. 231–252, Raven Press, New York, NY, USA, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  35. C. Leonhard, K. Mulvey, D.R. Gastfriend, and M. Schwartz, “The Addiction Severity Index: a field study of internal consistency and validity,” Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, vol. 18, pp. 129–135, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  36. L. Appleby, V. Dyson, E. Altman, and D. J. Luchins, “Assessing substance use in multiproblem patients: reliability and validity of the addiction severity index in a mental hospital population,” Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, vol. 185, no. 3, pp. 159–165, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. N. M. Petry, “Concurrent and predictive validity of the addiction severity index in pathological gamblers,” American Journal on Addictions, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 272–282, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. H. R. Lesieur and S. B. Blume, “Evaluation of patients treated for pathological gambling in a combined alcohol, substance abuse and pathological gambling treatment unit using the Addiction Severity Index,” British Journal of Addiction, vol. 86, no. 8, pp. 1017–1028, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. H.R. Lesieur and S.B. Blume, “Modifying the Addiction Severity Index for use with pathological gamblers,” American Journal on Addictions, vol. 1, pp. 240–247, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  40. N. M. Petry, “Validity of a gambling scale for the addiction severity index,” Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, vol. 191, no. 6, pp. 399–407, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. T. F. Heatherton, L. T. Kozlowski, R. C. Frecker, and K. O. Fagerstrom, “The Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence: a revision of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire,” British Journal of Addiction, vol. 86, no. 9, pp. 1119–1127, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. K. O. Fagerstrom and N. G. Schneider, “Measuring nicotine dependence: a review of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire,” Journal of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 159–182, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. C. L. Huang, H. H. Lin, and H. H. Wang, “The psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence,” Addictive Behaviors, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 2324–2327, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. A. C. Leon, D. A. Solomon, T. I. Mueller, C. L. Turvey, J. Endicott, and M. B. Keller, “The Range of Impaired Functioning Tool (LIFE-RIFT): a brief measure of functional impairment,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 869–878, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M.B. Keller, P.W. Lavori, B. Friedman, E. Nielsen, J. Endicott, and P. McDonald-Scott, “The Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation: a comprehensive method for assessing outcome in prospective longitudinal studies,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 44, pp. 540–548, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  46. M. G. Warshaw, M. B. Keller, and R. L. Stout, “Reliability and validity of the longitudinal interval follow-up evaluation for assessing outcome of anxiety disorders,” Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 531–545, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. H. J. Shaffer, M. N. Hall, and J. Vander Bilt, “Estimating the prevalence of disordered gambling behavior in the United States and Canada: a research synthesis,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 89, no. 9, pp. 1369–1376, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. R. M. Cunningham-Williams, L. B. Cottler, W. M. Compton, and E. L. Spitznagel, “Taking chances: problem gamblers and mental health disorders—results from the St. Louis epidemiologic catchment area study,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 88, no. 7, pp. 1093–1095, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. R. A. Volberg, Gambling and Problem Gambling in Mississippi: A Report to the Mississippi Council on Compulsive Gambling, Social Science Research Centre, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Miss, USA, 1997.
  50. N. M. Petry and C. Oncken, “Cigarette smoking is associated with increased severity of gambling problems in treatment-seeking gamblers,” Addiction, vol. 97, no. 6, pp. 745–753, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. R. C. Kessler, E. E. Walters, and M. S. Forthofer, “The social consequences of psychiatric disorders, III: probability of marital stability,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 155, no. 8, pp. 1092–1096, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. P. Lépine, I. Gasquet, V. Kovess et al., “Prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders in the French general population,” Encephale, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 182–194, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. R. C. Kessler and R. G. Frank, “The impact of psychiatric disorders on work loss days,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 861–873, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. S. W. Kim, J. E. Grant, E. D. Eckert, P. L. Faris, and B. K. Hartman, “Pathological gambling and mood disorders: clinical associations and treatment implications,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 109–116, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. D. C. Hodgins, N. Peden, and E. Cassidy, “The association between comorbidity and outcome in pathological gambling: a prospective follow-up of recent quitters,” Journal of Gambling Studies, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 255–271, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. J. E. Grant, S. W. Kim, B. L. Odlaug, and M. N. Potenza, “Daily tobacco smoking in treatment-seeking pathological gamblers: clinical correlates and co-occurring psychiatric disorders,” Journal of Addiction Medicine, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 178–184, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. W. Feigelman, L. S. Wallisch, and H. R. Lesieur, “Problem gamblers, problem substance users, and dual-problem individuals: an epidemiological study,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 467–470, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. N. M. Petry, “Substance abuse, pathological gambling, and impulsiveness,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 29–38, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. R. C. Kessler, J. Abelson, O. Demler et al., “Clinical calibration of DSM-IV diagnoses in the World Mental Health (WMH) version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI),” International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 122–139, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. R. C. Kessler and B. B. Üstün, “The World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI),” International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 93–117, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. K. C. Winters and M. G. Kushner, “Treatment issues pertaining to pathological gamblers with a comorbid disorder,” Journal of Gambling Studies, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 261–277, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. E. V. Nunes, D. Deliyannides, S. Donovan, and P. J. McGrath, “The management of treatment resistance in depressed patients with substance use disorders,” Psychiatric Clinics of North America, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 311–327, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. H. J. Shaffer, D. A. LaPlante, R. A. LaBrie, R. C. Kidman, A. N. Donato, and M. V. Stanton, “Toward a syndrome model of addiction: multiple expressions, common etiology,” Harvard Review of Psychiatry, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 367–374, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus