Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2012, Article ID 671437, 18 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1100/2012/671437
Research Article

Impact of Parameterization of Physical Processes on Simulation of Track and Intensity of Tropical Cyclone Nargis (2008) with WRF-NMM Model

Centre for Atmospheric Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016, India

Received 11 January 2012; Accepted 4 March 2012

Academic Editors: L. Leslie and C. Ottle

Copyright © 2012 Sujata Pattanayak et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. V. Bhaskar Rao, C. V. Naidu, and B. R. Srinivasa Rao, “Trends and fluctuations of the cyclonic systems over North Indian Ocean,” Mausam, vol. 52, pp. 37–46, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  2. D. De Angelis, “World of tropical cyclones—North Indian Ocean,” Marines Weather Log, vol. 20, pp. 191–194, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. A. Anthes, Tropical Cyclones: Their Evolution, Structure and Effects, Meteorological Monographs, American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass, USA, 41 edition, 1982.
  4. W. M. Frank, “The cumulus parameterization problem,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 111, pp. 1859–1871, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. Molinari and M. Dudek, “Parameterization of convective precipitation in mesoscale numerical models: a critical review,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 120, no. 2, pp. 326–344, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. A. Anthes, “A cumulus parameterization scheme utilizing a one-dimensional cloud model,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 105, no. 3, pp. 270–286, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  7. M. Mandal, U. C. Mohanty, and S. Raman, “A study on the parameterization of physical processes on prediction of tropical cyclones over the Bay of Bengal with NCAR/PSU mesoscale model,” Natural Hazards, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 391–414, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. D. V. Bhaskar Rao and D. Hari Prasad, “Sensitivity of tropical cyclone intensification to boundary layer and convective processes,” Natural Hazards, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 429–445, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. A. Braun and W.-K. Tao, “Sensitivity of high resolution simulation of hurricane Bob (1991) to planetary boundary layer parameterizations,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 128, no. 12, pp. 3941–3961, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. Krishna K. Osuri, U. C. Mohanty, A. Routray, M. A. Kulkarni, and M. Mohapatra, “Customization of WRF-ARW model with physical parameterization schemes for the simulation of tropical cyclones over North Indian Ocean,” Natural Hazard. In press. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. Z. I. Janjic, “Nonsingular Implementation of the Mellor-Yamada level 2.5 scheme in the NCEP mesoscale model,” National Centers for Environmental Prediction Office Note, vol. 437, p. 61, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  12. Z. I. Janjic, “A Non-hydrostatic model based on a new approach,” Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, vol. 82, no. 1–4, pp. 271–285, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. Z. I. Janjic, “The NCEP WRF core and further development of its physical package,” in Proceedings of the 5th International SRNWP Workshop on Non-Hydrostatic Modeling, Bad Orb, Germany, October, 2003.
  14. Z. I. Janjic, “Non-linear advection schemes and energy cascade on semi-staggered grids,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 112, no. 6, pp. 1234–1245, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S.-Y. Hong and H.-L. Pan, “Non-local boundary layer vertical diffusion in a medium range forecast model,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 124, no. 10, pp. 2322–2339, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. I. Troen and L. Mahrt, “A simple model of the atmospheric boundary layer: sensitivity to surface evaporation,” Boundary Layer Meteorology, vol. 37, no. 1-2, pp. 129–148, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. Arakawa and W. H. Schubert, “Interaction of a cumulus cloud ensemble with the large scale environment,” Journal of Atmospheric Science, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 674–701, 1974. View at Google Scholar
  18. G. A. Grell, “Prognostic evaluation of assumption used by cumulus parameterization,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 121, no. 3, pp. 764–787, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. H.-L. Pan and W.-S. Wu, “Implementing a mass flux convection parameterization package for the NMC medium-range forecast model,” NMC Office Note 409, National Centers For Environmental Prediction, Environmental Modeling Center, Washington, DC, USA, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  20. J. S. Kain, “The Kain-Fritsch convective parameterization: an update,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 170–181, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. S. Kain and J. M. Fritsch, “Convective parameterization for mesoscale models: the Kain-Fritsch scheme,” in The Representation of Cumulus Convection in Numerical Models, K. A. Emanuel and D. J. Raymond, Eds., p. 246, American Meteorological Society, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  22. A. K. Betts and M. J. Miller, “A new convective adjustment scheme. Part II: single column tests using GATE wave, BOMEX, ATEX, and Arctic air-mass data sets,” Quarterly Journal of Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 112, no. 473, pp. 693–709, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. Z. I. Janjic, “The step-mountain eta coordinate model: further developments of the convection, viscous sub-layer and turbulence closure schemes,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 122, no. 5, pp. 927–945, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. S. Kain and J. M. Fritsch, “A one-dimensional Entraining/Detraining plume model and its application in convective parameterization,” Journal of Atmospheric Science, vol. 47, no. 23, pp. 2784–2802, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. Z. I. Janjic, “Comments on development and evaluation of a convection scheme for use in climate models,” Journal of Atmospheric Science, vol. 57, no. 21, pp. 3686–3686, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  26. G. A. Grell and D. Dévényi, “A generalized approach to parameterizing convection combining ensemble and data assimilation techniques,” Geophysical Research Letter, vol. 29, no. 14, pp. 1693–1697, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  27. W. C. Skamaraock, J. B. Klemp, J. Dudhia et al., “A description of the Advanced Research WRF Version 2,” NCAR Technical Note, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  28. M. B. Ek, K. E. Mitchell, Y. Lin et al., “Implementation of NOAH land surface model advances in the NCEP operational mesoscale Eta model,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 108, no. D22, p. 8851, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  29. F. Chen and J. Dudhia, “Coupling an advanced land-surface/ hydrology model with the Penn State/NCAR MM5 modeling system. Part I: model description and implementation,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 129, no. 4, pp. 569–585, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. T. G. Smirnova, J. M. Brown, S. G. Benjamin et al., “Performance of different soil model configurations in simulating ground surface temperature and surface fluxes,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 125, no. 8, pp. 1870–1884, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. T. G. Smirnova, J. M. Brown, S. G. Benjamin, and D. Kim, “Parameterization of cold season processes in the MAPS land-surface scheme,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 105, no. D3, pp. 4077–4086, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. B. S. Ferrier, Y. Lin, T. Black, E. Rogers, and G. DiMego, “Implementation of a new grid-scale cloud and precipitation scheme in the NCEP Eta model,” in Proceedings of the 15th Conference on Numerical Weather Prediction, pp. 280–283, American Meteorological Society, San Antonio, Tex, USA, 2002.
  33. S.-Y. Hong, H.-M. H. Juang, and Q. Zhao, “Implementation of prognostic cloud scheme for a regional spectral model,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 126, no. 10, pp. 2621–2639, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S.-Y. Hong, J. Dudhia, and S.-H. Chen, “A Revised approach to ice microphysical processes for the bulk parameterization of clouds and precipitation,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 132, no. 1, pp. 103–120, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. Y.-L. Lin, R. D. Farley, and H. D. Orville, “Bulk parameterization of the snow field in a cloud model,” Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 1065–1092, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. Dudhia, “Numerical study of convection observed during the winter monsoon experiment using a mesoscale two-dimensional model,” Journal of Atmospheric Science, vol. 46, no. 20, pp. 3077–3107, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. G. Thompson, R. M. Rasmussen, and K. Manning, “Explicit forecasts of winter precipitation using an improved bulk microphysics scheme, Part I: description and sensitivity analysis,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 132, no. 2, pp. 519–542, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus