Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2012, Article ID 980314, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1100/2012/980314
Research Article

Polychlorinated Biphenyls-Induced Oxidative Stress on Rat Hippocampus: A Neuroprotective Role of Quercetin

1Department of Endocrinology, Dr. ALM Post Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Chennai 600113, India
2Department of Biochemistry, Asan Memorial Dental College & Hospital, Asan Nagar 603105, India
3Department of Medical Research, SRM Medical College & Hospital, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603203, India

Received 11 October 2011; Accepted 22 November 2011

Academic Editors: P. M. Badot, M. Ema, and W. B. Hanley

Copyright © 2012 Kandaswamy Selvakumar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. H. Safe, “Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): environmental impact, biochemical and toxic responses, and implications for risk assessment,” Critical Reviews in Toxicology, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 87–149, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. S. Park, L. Linderholm, M. J. Charles et al., “Polychlorinated biphenyls and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in pregnant women from eastern Slovakia,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 115, no. 1, pp. 20–27, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. B. E. Fisher, “Most unwanted,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. A18–A23, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. C. S. Roegge and S. L. Schantz, “Motor function following developmental exposure to PCBS and/or MEHG,” Neurotoxicology and Teratology, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 260–277, 2006, Review. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  5. S. L. Schantz, J. J. Widholm, and D. C. Rice, “Effects of PCB exposure on neuropsychological function in children,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 111, no. 3, pp. 357–376, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. E. Mariussen and F. Fonnum, “Neurochemical targets and behavioral effects of organohalogen compounds: an update,” Critical Reviews in Toxicology, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 253–289, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. F. Seegal, “The neurotoxicological consequences of developmental exposure to PCBs,” Toxicological Sciences, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 1–3, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. I. N. Pessah, G. Cherednichenko, and P. J. Lein, “Minding the calcium store: ryanodine receptor activation as a convergent mechanism of PCB toxicity,” Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 125, no. 2, pp. 260–285, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  9. A. Dreiem, S. Rykken, H. J. Lehmler, L. W. Robertson, and F. Fonnum, “Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls increase reactive oxygen species formation and induce cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 240, no. 2, pp. 306–313, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  10. M. Ozcan, B. Yilmaz, W. M. King, and D. O. Carpenter, “Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) is reduced by a coplanar PCB congener,” NeuroToxicology, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 981–988, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  11. W. Malorni, G. Rainaldi, R. Rivabene et al., “Cytoskeletal oxidative changes lead to alterations of specific cell surface receptors,” European Journal of Histochemistry, vol. 38, pp. 91–100, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. Caner, Y. Karter, H. Uzun et al., “Oxidative stress in human in sustained and white coat hypertension,” International Journal of Clinical Practice, vol. 60, no. 12, pp. 1565–1571, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  13. E. Shacter, “Protein oxidative damage,” Methods in Enzymology, vol. 319, pp. 428–436, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. P. Venkataraman, R. Muthuvel, G. Krishnamoorthy et al., “PCB (Aroclor 1254) enhances oxidative damage in rat brain regions: protective role of ascorbic acid,” NeuroToxicology, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 490–498, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  15. P. Venkataraman, G. Krishnamoorthy, G. Vengatesh, N. Srinivasan, M. M. Aruldhas, and J. Arunakaran, “Protective role of melatonin on PCB (Aroclor 1254) induced oxidative stress and changes in acetylcholine esterase and membrane bound ATPases in cerebellum, cerebral cortex and hippocampus of adult rat brain,” International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 585–591, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  16. S. Tsakiris, “Effects of L-phenylalanine on acetylcholinesterase and Na+, K+-ATPase activities in adult and aged rat brain,” Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, vol. 122, no. 5, pp. 491–501, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. N. Z. Alsharif, T. Lawson, and S. J. Stohs, “Oxidative stress induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin is mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor complex,” Toxicology, vol. 92, no. 1–3, pp. 39–51, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. B. Pawlikowska-Pawlȩga, W. I. Gruszecki, L. E. Misiak, and A. Gawron, “The study of the quercetin action on human erythrocyte membranes,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 605–612, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. A. Ross and C. M. Kasum, “Dietary flavonoids: bioavailability, metabolic effects, and safety,” Annual Review of Nutrition, vol. 22, pp. 19–34, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  20. F. Pu, K. Mishima, K. Irie et al., “Neuroprotective effects of quercetin and rutin on spatial memory impairment in an 8-arm radial maze task and neuronal death induced by repeated cerebral ischemia in rats,” Journal of Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 104, no. 4, pp. 329–334, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. W. Sun, H. Q. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. L. Zheng, J. J. Wang, and L. Luo, “Quercetin attenuates spontaneous behavior and spatial memory impairment in d-galactose-treated mice by increasing brain antioxidant capacity,” Nutrition Research, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 169–175, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. O. H. Lowry, N. J. Risebrough, A. L. Farr, and R. J. Randal, “Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 193, no. 1, pp. 265–275, 1951. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. E. Pick and Y. Keisari, “Superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide production by chemically elicited peritoneal macrophages—induction by multiple nonphagocytic stimuli,” Cellular Immunology, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 301–318, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. T. P. A. Devasagayam and U. Tarachand, “Decreased lipid peroxidation in the rat kidney during gestation,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 145, no. 1, pp. 134–138, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. L. Levine, J. A. Williams, E. R. Stadtman, and E. Shacter, “Carbonyl assays for determination of oxidatively modified proteins,” Methods in Enzymology, vol. 233, pp. 346–357, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. G. L. Ellman, K. D. Courtney, V. Andres, and R. M. Feather-Stone, “A new and rapid colorimetric determination of acetylcholinesterase activity,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 88–IN1, 1961. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. Okinaka, H. Sugita, H. Momoi et al., “Cysteine-stimulated serum creatine kinase in health and disease,” The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 299–305, 1964. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. F. J. Daemen, J. J. de Pont, F. Lion, and S. L. Bonting, “Na+-K+-activated adenosinetriphosphatase in retinae of rats with and without inherited retinal dystrophy,” Vision Research, vol. 5, pp. 435–438, 1970. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. Hjerten and H. Pan, “Purification and characterization of two forms of a low-affinity Ca2+-ATPase from erythrocyte membranes,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 728, no. 2, pp. 281–288, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. T. Ohnishi, T. Suzuki, Y. Suzuki, and K. Ozawa, “A comparative study of plasma membrane Mg2+-ATPase activities in normal, regenerating and malignant cells,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 684, no. 1, pp. 67–74, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  31. P. Venkataraman, K. Selvakumar, G. Krishnamoorthy et al., “Effect of melatonin on PCB (Aroclor 1254) induced neuronal damage and changes in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase-4 mRNA expression in cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus of adult rats,” Neuroscience Research, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 189–197, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  32. D. Werner, S. E. Hale, U. Ghosh, and R. G. Luthy, “Polychlorinated biphenyl sorption and availability in field-contaminated sediments,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 2809–2815, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  33. H. Kasai, P. F. Crain, Y. Kuchino, S. Nishimura, A. Ootsuyama, and H. Tanoaka, “Formation of 8-hydroxyguanine moiety in cellular dna by agents producing oxygen radicals and evidence for its repair,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 1849–1851, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. H. R. Griffith, J. Unswoth, D. R. Blake, and J. Lunec, “Oxidation of amino acids within serum proteins,” in Free Radicals: Chemistry, Pathology and Medicine, Rice-Evans, Ed., pp. 439–454, Richeliue, London, UK, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  35. M. Sridhar, P. Venkataraman, S. Dhanammal et al., “Impact of polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254) and vitamin C on antioxidant system of rat ventral prostate,” Asian Journal of Andrology, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 19–22, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. P. Murugesan, P. Kanagaraj, S. Yuvaraj, K. Balasubramanian, M. M. Aruldhas, and J. Arunakaran, “The inhibitory effects of polychlorinated biphenyl Aroclor 1254 on Leydig cell LH receptors, steroidogenic enzymes and antioxidant enzymes in adult rats,” Reproductive Toxicology, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 117–126, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  37. P. Murugesan, J. Senthilkumar, K. Balasubramanian, M. M. Aruldhas, and J. Arunakaran, “Impact of polychlorinated biphenyl Aroclor 1254 on testicular antioxidant system in adult rats,” Human and Experimental Toxicology, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 61–66, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. P. Murugesan, T. Muthusamy, K. Balasubramanian, and J. Arunakaran, “Polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254) inhibits testosterone biosynthesis and antioxidant enzymes in cultured rat Leydig cells,” Reproductive Toxicology, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 447–454, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  39. G. Krishnamoorthy, K. Selvakumar, P. Elumalai, P. Venkataraman, and J. Arunakaran, “Studies on the protective role of lycopene against polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1254)-induced changes in StAR protein and cytochrome P450 scc enzyme expression on Leydig cells of adult rats,” Reproductive Toxicology, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 41–45, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  40. K. Selvakumar, L. Sheerin Banu, G. Krishnamoorthy, P. Venkataraman, P. Elumalai, and J. Arunakaran, “Differential expression of androgen and estrogen receptors in PCB (Aroclor 1254)-exposed rat ventral prostate: impact of alpha-tocopherol,” Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, vol. 63, no. 1-2, pp. 105–112, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  41. T. P. Twaroski, M. L. O'Brien, and L. W. Robertson, “Effects of selected polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners on hepatic glutathione, glutathione-related enzymes, and selenium status: implications for oxidative stress,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 273–281, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. E. D. Hall, “Degenerative and regenerative events in the central and peripheral nervous systems,” in Comprehensive Toxicology, I. G. Sipes, C. A. McQueen, and A. J. Gandol , Eds., pp. 41–58, Pregmon Press, Oxford, UK, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  43. C. Mylonas and D. Kouretas, “Lipid peroxidation and tissue damage,” In Vivo, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 295–309, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. K. Nguon, M. G. Baxter, and E. M. Sajdel-Sulkowska, “Perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls differentially affects cerebellar development and motor functions in male and female rat neonates,” Cerebellum, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 112–122, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  45. P. Venkataraman, G. Krishnamoorthy, K. Selvakumar, and J. Arunakaran, “Oxidative stress alters creatine kinase system in serum and brain regions of polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254)-exposed rats: protective role of melatonin,” Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, vol. 105, no. 2, pp. 92–97, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  46. N. Sridevi, P. Venkataraman, K. Senthilkumar, G. Krishnamoorthy, and J. Arunakaran, “Oxidative stress modulates membrane bound ATPases in brain regions of PCB (Aroclor 1254) exposed rats: protective role of α-tocopherol,” Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, vol. 61, no. 7, pp. 435–440, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  47. S. Bavithra, K. Selvakumar, R. Pratheepa Kumari, G. Krishnamoorthy, P. Venkataraman, and J. Arunakaran, “Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs)-induced oxidative stress plays a critical role on cerebellar dopaminergic receptor expression: ameliorative role of quercetin,” Neurotoxicity Research. In Press. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  48. P. Koufen and G. Stark, “Free radical induced inactivation of creatine kinase: sites of interaction, protection, and recovery,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1501, no. 1, pp. 44–50, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. T. Carbonell and R. Rama, “Iron, oxidative stress and early neurological deterioration in ischemic stroke,” Current Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 857–874, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. Tsakiris, P. Angelogianni, K. H. Schulpis, and J. C. Stavridis, “Protective effect of L-phenylalanine on rat brain acetylcholinesterase inhibition induced by free radicals,” Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 103–106, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. R. I. Vincent, W. S. Bradshaw, G. M. Booth, R. E. Seegmiller, and S. D. Allen, “Effect of PCB and DES on rat monoamine oxidase, acetylcholinesterase, testosterone, and estradiol ontogeny,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 884–893, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. A. T. S. Wyse, E. L. Streck, P. Worm, A. Wajner, F. Ritter, and C. A. Netto, “Preconditioning prevents the inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase activity after brain ischemia,” Neurochemical Research, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 971–975, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. O. P. Mishra, M. Delivoria-Papadopoulos, G. Cahillane, and L. C. Wagerle, “Lipid peroxidation as the mechanism of modification of the affinity of the Na+, K+-ATPase active sites for ATP, K+, Na+, and strophanthidin in vitro,” Neurochemical Research, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 845–851, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. R. Pratheepa Kumari, K. Selvakumar, S. Bavithra, R. Zumaana, G. Krishnamoorthy, and J. Arunakaran, “Role of quercetin on PCBs (Aroclor-1254) induced impairment of dopaminergic receptor mRNA expression in cerebral cortex of adult male rats,” Neurochemical Research, vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 1344–1352, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  55. M. K. Johnson and G. Loo, “Effects of epigallocatechin gallate and quercetin on oxidative damage to cellular DNA,” Mutation Research, vol. 459, no. 3, pp. 211–218, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. N. Kawada, S. Seki, M. Inoue, and T. Kuroki, “Effect of antioxidants, resveratrol, quercetin, and N-acetylcysteine, on the functions of cultured rat hepatic stellate cells and kupffer cells,” Hepatology, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 1265–1274, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  57. M. Y. Moridani, J. Pourahmad, H. Bui, A. Siraki, and P. J. O'Brien, “Dietary flavonoid iron complexes as cytoprotective superoxide radical scavengers,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 243–253, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. G. Cao, E. Sofic, and R. L. Prior, “Antioxidant and prooxidant behavior of flavonoids: structure-activity relationships,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 749–760, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. A. J. Day, F. J. Cañada, J. C. Díaz et al., “Dietary flavonoid and isoflavone glycosides are hydrolysed by the lactase site of lactase phlorizin hydrolase,” FEBS Letters, vol. 468, no. 2-3, pp. 166–170, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. L. O. Klotz and H. Sies, “Defenses against peroxynitrite: selenocompounds and flavonoids,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 140-141, pp. 125–132, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. J. C. Chen, F. M. Ho, L.C. Pei-Dawn et al., “Inhibition of iNOS gene expression by quercetin is mediated by the inhibition of IκB kinase, nuclear factor-kappa B and STAT1, and depends on heme oxygenase-1 induction in mouse BV-2 microglia,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 521, no. 1–3, pp. 9–20, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  62. J. Ø. Moskaug, H. Carlsen, M. C. Myhrstad, and R. Blomhoff, “Polyphenols and glutathione synthesis regulation,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 277–283, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. M. I. Yousef, S. A. M. Omar, M. I. El-Guendi, and L. A. Abdelmegid, “Potential protective effects of quercetin and curcumin on paracetamol-induced histological changes, oxidative stress, impaired liver and kidney functions and haematotoxicity in rat,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 3246–3261, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus