Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2013, Article ID 127905, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/127905
Review Article

Periodontal Care as a Fundamental Step for an Active and Healthy Ageing

University of Naples Federico II, Via Sergio Pansini 5, 80131 Napoli, Italy

Received 14 October 2013; Accepted 25 November 2013

Academic Editors: A. Guentsch and F. Michon

Copyright © 2013 Carlo Cafiero et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. http://ec.europa.eu/research/innovation-union/pdf/active-healthy-ageing/a3_action_plan.pdf.
  2. http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/worldageing19502050.
  3. G. Mckenna and F. M. Burke, “Age-related oral changes,” Dental update, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 519–523, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. de Jong-Gierveld and H. van Solinge, Ageing and Its Consequences For the SocioMedical System. Population Studies, No 29.Strasbourg, Council of European Press, France, 1995.
  5. R. Holliday, “Ageing in the 21st century,” The Lancet, vol. 354, no. 9196, p. SIV4, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. http://ec.europa.eu/research/innovation-union/index_en.cfm?section=active-healthy-ageing.
  7. http://ec.europa.eu/research/innovation-union/pdf/active-healthy-ageing/a3_action_plan.pdf.
  8. C. Cafiero and S. Matarasso, “Predictive, preventive, personalised and participatory periodontology: ‘the 5Ps age’ has already started,” The EPMA Journal, vol. 4, 16 pages, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  9. M. S. Tonetti, “Cigarette smoking and periodontal diseases: etiology and management of disease,” Annals of Periodontology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 88–101, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. G. Calsina, J.-M. Ramón, and J.-J. Echeverría, “Effects of smoking on periodontal tissues,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 771–776, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. C. Rieder, A. Joss, and N. P. Lang, “Influence of compliance and smoking habits on the outcomes of supportive periodontal therapy (SPT) in a private practice,” Oral Health Prev Dent, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 89–94, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. G. Machuca, I. Rosales, J. R. Lacalle, C. Machuca, and P. Bullón, “Effect of cigarette smoking on periodontal status of healthy young adults,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 73–78, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. M. Palmer, R. F. Wilson, A. S. Hasan, and D. A. Scott, “Mechanisms of action of environmental factors—tobacco smoking,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 180–195, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. K. Kiecolt Glaser, D. Ricker, and J. George, “Urinary cortisol levels, cellular immunocompetency, and loneliness in psychiatric inpatients,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 15–23, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. L. Boyapati and H.-L. Wang, “The role of stress in periodontal disease and wound healing,” Periodontology 2000, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 195–210, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. C. Peruzzo, B. B. Benatti, G. M. B. Ambrosano et al., “A systematic review of stress and psychological factors as possible risk factors for periodontal disease,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 78, no. 8, pp. 1491–1504, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/diabetes-statistics/.
  18. T. Tervonen and R. C. Oliver, “Long-term control of diabetes mellitus and periodontitis,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 431–435, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. H. Löe, “Periodontal disease: the sixth complication of diabetes mellitus,” Diabetes Care, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 329–334, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. G. Grossi, J. J. Zambon, A. W. Ho et al., “Assessment of risk for periodontal disease. I. Risk indicators for attachment loss,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 260–267, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. G. Grossi and R. J. Genco, “Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus: a two-way relationship,” Annals of Periodontology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 51–61, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. T. C. Simpson, I. Needleman, S. H. Wild, D. R. Moles, and E. J. Mills, “Treatment of periodontal disease for glycaemic control in people with diabetes,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 12, no. 5, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. D. T. Villareal, C. M. Apovian, R. F. Kushner, and S. Klein, “Obesity in older adults: technical review and position statement of the American Society for Nutrition and NAASO, The Obesity Society,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 82, no. 5, pp. 923–934, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. A. Grinker, K. Tucker, P. S. Vokonas, and D. Rush, “Body habitus changes among adult males from the normative aging study: relations to aging, smoking history and alcohol intake,” Obesity Research, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 435–446, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. G. Cree, B. R. Newcomer, C. S. Katsanos et al., “Intramuscular and liver triglycerides are increased in the elderly,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 89, no. 8, pp. 3864–3871, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. S. Ritchie, “Obesity and periodontal disease,” Periodontology 2000, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 154–163, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. E. E. Kershaw and J. S. Flier, “Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 89, no. 6, pp. 2548–2556, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. T. Saito, Y. Shimazaki, and M. Sakamoto, “Obesity and periodontitis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 339, no. 7, pp. 482–483, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. S. Al-Zahrani, N. F. Bissada, and E. A. Borawski, “Obesity and periodontal disease in young, middle-aged, and older adults,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 74, no. 5, pp. 610–615, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. G. Linden, C. Patterson, A. Evans, and F. Kee, “Obesity and periodontitis in 60-70-year-old men,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 461–466, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. R. J. Genco, S. G. Grossi, A. Ho, F. Nishimura, and Y. Murayama, “A proposed model linking inflammation to obesity, diabetes, and periodontal infections,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 76, no. 11, pp. 2075–2084, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. S. Al-Zahrani, E. A. Borawski, and N. F. Bissada, “Increased physical activity reduces prevalence of periodontitis,” Journal of Dentistry, vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 703–710, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. S. Al-Zahrani, E. A. Borawski, and N. F. Bissada, “Periodontitis and three health-enhancing behaviors: maintaining normal weight, engaging in recommended level of exercise, and consuming a high-quality diet,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 76, no. 8, pp. 1362–1366, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. http://www.iofbonehealth.org/epidemiology.
  35. C. Cooper, G. Campion, and L. J. Melton III, “Hip fractures in the elderly: a world-wide projection,” Osteoporosis International, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 285–289, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. Randell, P. N. Sambrook, T. V. Nguyen et al., “Direct clinical and welfare costs of osteoporotic fractures in elderly men and women,” Osteoporosis International, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 427–432, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J.-Y. Reginster and N. Burlet, “Osteoporosis: a still increasing prevalence,” Bone, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. S4–S9, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. Wactawski-Wende, “Periodontal diseases and osteoporosis: association and mechanisms,” Annals of Periodontology, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 197–208, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. N. Von Wowern, B. Klausen, and K. Olgaard, “Steroid-induced mandibular bone loss in relation to marginal periodontal changes,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 182–186, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. Yoshihara, Y. Seida, N. Hanada, and H. Miyazaki, “A longitudinal study of the relationship between periodontal disease and bone mineral density in community-dwelling older adults,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 680–684, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. J. M. Albandar, J. A. Brunelle, and A. Kingman, “Destructive periodontal disease in adults 30 years of age and older in the United States, 1988–1994,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 13–29, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. Lindhe, N. P. Lang, and T. Karring :, “The anatomy of periodontal tissue,” in Clinical Periodontology and Implant Dentistry, vol. 1, pp. 3–48, Wiley-Blackwell, 5th edition, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  43. N. Nørskov-Lauritsen and M. Kilian, “Reclassification of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Haemophilus aphrophilus, Haemophilus paraphrophilus and Haemophilus segnis as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans gen. nov., comb. nov., Aggregatibacter aphrophilus comb. nov. and Aggregatibacter segnis comb. nov., and emended description of Aggregatibacter aphrophilus to include V factor-dependent and V factor-independent isolates,” International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, vol. 56, no. 9, pp. 2135–2146, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. Sakamoto, M. Suzuki, M. Umeda, I. Ishikawa, and Y. Benno, “Reclassification of Bacteroides forsythus as Tanerella forsythensis corrig., gen. nov., comb. nov,” International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 841–849, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. B. G. Loos, F. G. J. Leppers-Van De Straat, J. G. J. Van De Winkel, and U. Van Der Velden, “Fcγ receptor polymorphisms in relation to periodontitis,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 595–602, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. B. G. Loos and S. Tjoa, “Host-derived diagnostic markers for periodontitis: do they exist in gingival crevice fluid?” Periodontology 2000, vol. 39, pp. 53–72, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. K. Nakashima, “A longitudinal study of various crevicular fluid components as markers of periodontal disease activity,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 832–838, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. C. N. Kennett, S. W. Cox, and B. M. Eley, “Investigations into the cellular contribution to host tissue proteases and inhibitors in gingival crevicular fluid,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 424–431, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. B. M. Eley and S. W. Cox, “The relationship between gingival crevicular fluid cathepsin B activity and periodontal attachment loss in chronic periodontitis patients: a 2-year longitudinal study,” Journal of Periodontal Research, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 381–392, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. H. Y. Chen, S. W. Cox, and B. M. Eley, “Cathepsin B, α2-macroglobulin and cystatin levels in gingival crevicular fluid from chronic periodontitis patients,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 34–41, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. S. W. Cox and B. M. Eley, “Cathepsin B/L-, elastase-, tryptase-, trypsin- and dipeptidyl peptidase IV-like activities in gingival crevicular fluid. A comparison of levels before and after basic periodontal treatment of chronic periodontitis patients,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 333–339, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. C. A. Ramseier, J. S. Kinney, A. E. Herr et al., “Identification of pathogen and host-response markers correlated with periodontal disease,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 436–446, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. W. V. Giannobile, “Salivary diagnostics for periodontal diseases,” The Journal of the American Dental Association, vol. 143, pp. 6S–11S, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  54. B. M. Eley and S. W. Cox, “Correlation between gingival crevicular fluid dipeptidyl peptidase II and IV activity and periodontal attachment loss. A 2-year longitudinal study in chronic periodontitis patients,” Oral Diseases, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 201–213, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. L. Jin, B. Söder, and E. F. Corbet, “Interleukin-8 and granulocyte elastase in gingival crevicular fluid in relation to periodontopathogens in untreated adult periodontitis,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 71, no. 6, pp. 929–939, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. Q. T. Smith, L. Harriman, G. S. Au et al., “Neutrophil elastase in crevicular fluid: comparison of a middle-aged general population with healthy and periodontitis groups,” Journal of clinical periodontology, vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 935–941, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. K. G. Palcanis, I. K. Larjava, B. R. Wells et al., “Elastase as an indicator of periodontal disease progression,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 237–242, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. W. V. Giannobile, K. F. Al-Shammari, and D. P. Sarment, “Matrix molecules and growth factors as indicators of periodontal disease activity,” Periodontology 2000, vol. 31, pp. 125–134, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. A. J. Smith, M. Addy, and G. Embery, “Gingival crevicular fluid glycosaminoglycan levels in patients with chronic adult periodontitis,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 355–361, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. I. L. C. Chapple, “Periodontal disease diagnosis: current status and future developments,” Journal of Dentistry, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 3–15, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. I. L. Chapple, J. B. Matthews, G. H. Thorpe, H. D. Glenwright, J. M. Smith, and M. S. Saxby, “A new ultrasensitive chemiluminescent assay for the site-specific quantification of alkaline phosphatase in gingival crevicular fluid,” Journal of Periodontal Research, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 266–273, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. M. Södergren, “Lifestyle predictors of healthy ageing in men,” Maturitas, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 113–117, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  63. O. Golubnitschaja, “Time for new guidelines in advanced diabetes care: paradigm change from delayed interventional approach to predictive, preventive & personalized medicine,” EPMA Journal, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 3–12, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. O. Golubnitschaja and V. Costigliola, “European strategies in predictive, preventive and personalised medicine: highlights of the EPMA World Congress 2011,” EPMA Journal, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 315–332, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. O. Golubnitschaja, I. D. Watson, E. Topic, S. Sandberg, M. Ferrari, and V. Costigliola, “Position paper of the EPMA and EFLM: a global vision of the consolidated promotion of an integrative medical approach to advance health care,” EPMA Journal, vol. 4, no. 1, p. 12, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar