Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2013, Article ID 131597, 12 pages
Research Article

Use of Computational Fluid Dynamics to Estimate Hemodynamic Effects of Respiration on Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Surgery: Total Cavopulmonary Connection Treatments

1Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Shanghai Children’s Medical Centre, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 1678 Dongfang Road, Shanghai 200127, China
2Australian School of Advanced Medicine, 2 Technology Place, Macquarie University, North Ryde, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia
3ASMeW Lab, Centre for Advanced Biomedical Sciences, TWIns, Waseda University, 2-2 Wakamatsucho, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-8480, Japan

Received 29 July 2013; Accepted 6 November 2013

Academic Editors: S. Jahandideh, P. Kok, and A. Zaravinos

Copyright © 2013 Jinlong Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC), a typical kind of Fontan procedure, is commonly used in the treatment of a functional single ventricle. The palliative cardiothoracic procedure is performed by connecting the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava to the pulmonary arteries. Due to the difficulty of direct study in vivo, in this paper, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was introduced to estimate the outcomes of patient-specific TCPC configuration. We mainly focused on the influence of blood pulsation and respiration. Fast Fourier transforms method was employed to separate the measured flow conditions into the rate of breath and heart beat. Blood flow performance around the TCPC connection was investigated by analyzing the results of time-varying energy losses, blood flow distribution rate, local pressure, and wall shear stress distributions. It was found that the value of energy loss including the influence of respiration was 1.5 times higher than the value of energy loss disregarding respiratory influences. The results indicated that the hemodynamic outcomes of TCPC treatment are obviously influenced by respiration. The influence of respiration plays an important role in estimating the results of TCPC treatment and thus should be included as one of the important conditions of computational haemodynamic analysis.