Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 134565, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/134565
Research Article

Solid Phase Extraction of Inorganic Mercury Using 5-Phenylazo-8-hydroxyquinoline and Determination by Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy in Natural Water Samples

1Université Lille 1, Equipe Chimie Analytique et Marine, UMR-CNRS 8217 Géosystèmes, Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex, France
2Water & Environmental Sciences Laboratory (L.S.E.E), Lebanese University, Lebanon

Received 1 August 2013; Accepted 22 August 2013

Academic Editors: S. D'Ilio, T. Kaneta, S. Lee, and R. Zakrzewski

Copyright © 2013 Mirna Daye et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Tian, N. Song, D. Wang et al., “Applications of the binary mixture of sec-octylphenoxyacetic acid and 8-hydroxyquinoline to the extraction of rare earth elements,” Hydrometallurgy, vol. 111-112, no. 1, pp. 109–113, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. F. Malamas, M. Bengtsson, and G. Johansson, “On-line trace metal enrichment and matrix isolation in atomic absorption spectrometry by a column containing immobilized 8-quinolinol in a flow-injection system,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 160, pp. 1–10, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. Y. T. Chow and F. F. Cantwell, “Calcium sorption by immobilized oxine and its use in determining free calcium ion concentration in aqueous solution,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 60, no. 15, pp. 1569–1573, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. R. Weaver and J. M. Harris, “In situ fluorescence studies of aluminum ion complexation by 8-hydroxyquinoline covalently bound to silica,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 61, no. 9, pp. 1001–1010, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. Howard, H. A. Jurbergs, and J. A. Holcombe, “Comparison of silica-immobilized poly(L-cysteine) and 8-hydroxyquinoline for trace metal extraction and recovery,” Journal of analytical atomic spectrometry, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1209–1214, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. Cerutti, M. F. Silva, J. A. Gásquez, R. A. Olsina, and L. D. Martinez, “On-line preconcentration/determination of cadmium in drinking water on activated carbon using 8-hydroxyquinoline in a flow injection system coupled to an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer,” Spectrochimica Acta B, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 43–50, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. A. Marshall and H. A. Mottola, “Synthesis of silica-immobilized 8-quinolinol with (aminophenyl)trimethoxysilane,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 55, no. 13, pp. 2089–2093, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. D. Shannon, “effective ionic radii and systematic studies of interatomie distances in halides and chaleogenides,” Acta Crystallographica A, vol. 32, pp. 751–767, 1976. View at Google Scholar
  9. O. Yayayürük, E. Henden, and N. Bicak, “Determination of mercury(ii) in the presence of methylmercury after preconcentration using poly(acrylamide) grafted onto cross-linked poly(4-vinyl pyridine): application to mercury speciation,” Analytical Sciences, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 833–838, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. E. M. Soliman, M. B. Saleh, and S. A. Ahmed, “New solid phase extractors for selective separation and preconcentration of mercury (II) based on silica gel immobilized aliphatic amines 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde Schiff's bases,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 523, no. 1, pp. 133–140, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Faraji, Y. Yamini, and M. Rezaee, “Extraction of trace amounts of mercury with sodium dodecyle sulphate-coated magnetite nanoparticles and its determination by flow injection inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry,” Talanta, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 831–836, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. Y. Zhai, S. Duan, Q. He, X. Yang, and Q. Han, “Solid phase extraction and preconcentration of trace mercury(II) from aqueous solution using magnetic nanoparticles doped with 1,5-diphenylcarbazide,” Microchimica Acta, vol. 169, no. 3, pp. 353–360, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. W. Qu, Y. Zhai, S. Meng, Y. Fan, and Q. Zhao, “Selective solid phase extraction and preconcentration of trace mercury(II) with poly-allylthiourea packed columns,” Microchimica Acta, vol. 163, no. 3-4, pp. 277–282, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. X. Chai, X. Chang, Z. Hu, Q. He, Z. Tu, and Z. Li, “Solid phase extraction of trace Hg(II) on silica gel modified with 2-(2-oxoethyl)hydrazine carbothioamide and determination by ICP-AES,” Talanta, vol. 82, no. 5, pp. 1791–1796, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. V. B. Krishna, D. Karunasagar, S. V. Rao, and J. Arunachalam, “Preconcentration and speciation of inorganic and methyl mercury in waters using polyaniline and gold trap-CVAAS,” Talanta, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 329–335, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. Xu, L. Chena, J. Li, Y. Guan, and H. Lu, “Novel Hg2+-imprinted polymers based on thymine-Hg2+-thymine interaction for highly selective preconcentration of Hg2+ in water samples,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 237-238, pp. 347–354, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  17. E. K. Mladenova, I. G. Dakova, D. L. Tsalev, and I. B. Karadjova, “Mercury determination and speciation analysis in surface waters,” Central European Journal of Chemistry, vol. 10, pp. 1175–1182, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. E. M. Soliman, M. B. Saleh, and S. A. Ahmed, “Alumina modified by dimethyl sulfoxide as a new selective solid phase extractor for separation and preconcentration of inorganic mercury(II),” Talanta, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 55–60, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. Shamsipur, A. Shokrollahi, H. Sharghi, and M. M. Eskandari, “Solid phase extraction and determination of sub-ppb levels of hazardous Hg2+ ions,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 117, no. 2-3, pp. 129–133, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. Y. Liu, X. Chang, D. Yang, Y. Guo, and S. Meng, “Highly selective determination of inorganic mercury(II) after preconcentration with Hg(II)-imprinted diazoaminobenzene-vinylpyridine copolymers,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 538, no. 1-2, pp. 85–91, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. N. Pourreza and K. Ghanemi, “Determination of mercury in water and fish samples by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry after solid phase extraction on agar modified with 2-mercaptobenzimidazole,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 161, no. 2-3, pp. 982–987, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. Z. Fan, “Hg(II)-imprinted thiol-functionalized mesoporous sorbent micro-column preconcentration of trace mercury and determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry,” Talanta, vol. 70, no. 5, pp. 1164–1169, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. M. Hill, “Silica gel as an insoluble carrier for the preparation of selective chromatographic adsorbents. The preparation of 8-hydroxyquinonline substituted silica gel for the chelation chromatography of some trace metals,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 455–458, 1973. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. A. Marshall and H. A. Mottola, “Performance studies under flow conditions of silica-immobilized 8-quinolinol and its application as a preconcentration tool in flow injection/atomic absorption determinations,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 729–733, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. R. Jezorek, K. H. Faltynski, L. G. Blackburn, P. J. Henderson, and H. D. Medina, “Silica-bound complexing agents: some aspects of synthesis, stability and pore size,” Talanta, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 763–770, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. Goswami, A. K. Singh, and B. Venkataramani, “8-Hydroxyquinoline anchored to silica gel via new moderate size linker: synthesis and applications as a metal ion collector for their flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination,” Talanta, vol. 60, pp. 1141–1154, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  27. U. Pyell and G. Stork, “Preparation and properties of an 8-hydroxyquinoline silica gel, synthesized via mannich reaction,” Fresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry, vol. 342, no. 4-5, pp. 281–286, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. Lührmann, N. Stelter, and A. Kettrup, “Synthesis and properties of metal collecting phases with silica immobilized 8-Hydroxyquinoline,” Fresenius' Zeitschrift für Analytische Chemie, vol. 322, no. 1, pp. 47–52, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. V. A. Tertykh, V. V. Yanishpolskii, and O. Y. Panova, “Covalent attachment of some phenol derivatives to the silica surface by use of single-stage aminomethylation,” Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 545–549, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. Z. Wang, M. Jing, F. S. C. Lee, and X. Wang, “Synthesis of 8-hydroxyquinoline bonded silica (SHQ) and its application in flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis of trace metals in seawater,” Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 459–463, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. R. H. Uibel and J. M. Harris, “In situ raman spectroscopy studies of metal ion complexation by 8-hydroxyquinoline covalently bound to silica surfaces,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 74, no. 19, pp. 5112–5120, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. R. H. Uibel and J. M. Harris, “Spectroscopic studies of proton-transfer and metal-ion binding of a solution-phase model for silica-immobilized 8-hydroxyquinoline,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 494, no. 1-2, pp. 105–123, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. Hebrant, M. Rose-Helene, and A. Walcarius, “Metal ion removal by ultrafiltration of colloidal suspensions of organically modified silica,” Colloids and Surfaces A, vol. 417, pp. 65–72, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  34. K. F. Sugawara, H. H. Weetall, and G. D. Schucker, “Preparation, properties, and applications of 8-hydroxyquinoline immobilized chelate,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 489–492, 1974. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. R. E. Sturgeon, S. S. Berman, S. N. Willie, and J. A. H. Desauiniers, “Preconcentration of trace elements from seawater with silica-immobilized 8-hydroxyquinoline,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 53, no. 14, pp. 2337–2340, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. W. McLaren, “Determination of trace metals in seawater by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with preconcentration on silica-immobilized 8-hydroxyquinoline,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 57, no. 14, pp. 2907–2911, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. B. K. Esser, A. Volpe, J. M. Kenneally, and D. K. Smith, “Preconcentration and purification of rare earth elements in natural waters using silica-immobilized 8-hydroxyquinoline and a supported organophosphorus extractant,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 66, no. 10, pp. 1736–1742, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. M. Nelms, G. M. Greenway, and R. C. Hutton, “Application of multi-element time-resolved analysis to a rapid on-line matrix separation system for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 929–933, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. B. L. Rivas, B. Urbano, S. A. Pooley, I. Bustos, and N. Escalona, “Mercury and lead sorption properties of poly(ethyleneimine) coated onto silica gel,” Polymer Bulletin, vol. 68, pp. 1577–1588, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. Lagergren, “Zur theorie der sogenannten adsorption gelöster stoffe,” Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 1–39, 1898. View at Google Scholar
  41. Y. S. Ho and G. McKay, “Pseudo-second order model for sorption processes,” Process Biochemistry, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 451–465, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. W. J. Weber and J. C. Morris, “Kinetics of adsorption on carbon from solution,” Journal of the Sanitary Engineering Division, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 31–60, 1963. View at Google Scholar
  43. H. Freundlich, “Ueber die adsorption in loesungen,” Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie, vol. 57, pp. 385–470, 1907. View at Google Scholar
  44. H. Dikici and K. Salti, “Equiliberium and kinetics characteristics of copper(II) sorption into gytija,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 84, pp. 147–151, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  45. M. M. Dubinin and L. V. Raudushkevich, “Equation of the characteristics curve of activated charcoal,” Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences Physical Chemistry Section, USSR, vol. 55, pp. 331–333, 1947. View at Google Scholar
  46. M. L. Ferreira and M. E. Gschaider, “Theoretical and experimental study of Pb2+ and Hg2+ adsorption on biopolymers, 1: theoretical study,” Macromolecular Bioscience, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 233–248, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. A. W. Adamson, Physical Chemistry of Surfaces, Wiley, New York, NY, USA, 5th edition, 1990.
  48. A. E. Martell and L. G. Sillen, Stability Constants of Metal Ion Complexes, Chemical Society, London, UK, 2nd edition, 1964.
  49. D. R. Turner, M. Whitfield, and A. G. Dickson, “The equilibrium speciation of dissolved components in freshwater and sea water at 25°C and 1 atm pressure,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 855–881, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. W. T. Rees, “Fluorimetric determination of very small amounts of aluminium,” The Analyst, vol. 87, no. 1032, pp. 202–206, 1962. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. K.-L. Yang, S.-J. Jiang, and T.-J. Hwang, “Determination of titanium and vanadium in water samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with on-line preconcentration,” Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 139–143, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. R. Dojlido and G. A. Best, Chemistry of Water and Water Pollution, Ellis Horwood Series in Water and Wastewater Technology, Ellis Horwood, New York, NY, USA, 1993.
  53. A. Denizli, K. Kesenci, Y. Arica, and E. Pişkin, “Dithiocarbamate-incorporated monosize polystyrene microspheres for selective removal of mercury ions,” Reactive and Functional Polymers, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 235–243, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. P. Stathi, K. Dimos, M. A. Karakassides, and Y. Deligiannakis, “Mechanism of heavy metal uptake by a hybrid MCM-41 material: surface complexation and EPR spectroscopic study,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 343, no. 1, pp. 374–380, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. V. C. Taty-Costodes, H. Fauduet, C. Porte, and A. Delacroix, “Removal of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions, from aqueous solutions, by adsorption onto sawdust of Pinus sylvestris,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 105, no. 1–3, pp. 121–142, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. M. V. Dinu and E. S. Dragan, “Evaluation of Cu2+, Co2+ and Ni2+ ions removal from aqueous solution using a novel chitosan/clinoptilolite composite: kinetics and isotherms,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 160, no. 1, pp. 157–163, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. M. Mureseanu, A. Reiss, I. Stefanescu et al., “Modified SBA-15 mesoporous silica for heavy metal ions remediation,” Chemosphere, vol. 73, no. 9, pp. 1499–1504, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. A. Sayari, S. Hamoudi, and Y. Yang, “Applications of pore-expanded mesoporous silica. 1. Removal of heavy metal cations and organic pollutants from wastewater,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 212–216, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. H. Irving and R. J. P. Williams, “Order of stability of metal complexes,” Nature, vol. 162, no. 4123, pp. 746–747, 1948. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. A. Benhamou, M. Baudu, Z. Derriche, and J. P. Basly, “Aqueous heavy metals removal on amine-functionalized Si-MCM-41 and Si-MCM-48,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 171, no. 1–3, pp. 1001–1008, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. N. Ünlü and M. Ersoz, “Adsorption characteristics of heavy metal ions onto a low cost biopolymeric sorbent from aqueous solutions,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 136, no. 2, pp. 272–280, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. L. Wang, R. Xing, S. Liu et al., “Synthesis and evaluation of a thiourea-modified chitosan derivative applied for adsorption of Hg(II) from synthetic wastewater,” International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 524–528, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. O. Hakami, Y. Zhang, and C. J. Banks, “Thiol-functionalized mesoporous silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles for high efficiency removal and recovery of Hg from water,” Water Research, vol. 46, pp. 3913–3922, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  64. L. Bai, H. Hu, W. Fu et al., “Synthesis of a novel silica-supported dithiocarbamate adsorbent and its properties for the removal of heavy metal ions,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 195, pp. 261–275, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. L. Qi and Z. Xu, “Lead sorption from aqueous solutions on chitosan nanoparticles,” Colloids and Surfaces A, vol. 251, no. 1–3, pp. 183–190, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. S. N. Willie, H. Tekgul, and R. E. Sturgeon, “Immobilization of 8-hydroxyquinoline onto silicone tubing for the determination of trace elements in seawater using flow injection ICP-MS,” Talanta, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 439–445, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. H. Watanabe, K. Goto, S. Taguchi, J. W. McLaren, S. S. Berman, and D. S. Russell, “Preconcentration of trace elements in seawater by complexation with 8-hydroxyquinoline and adsorption on C18 bonded silica gel,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 738–739, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. G. L. Long and J. D. Winefordner, “Limit of detection: a closer look at the IUPAC definition,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 712–724, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus