Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2013, Article ID 195028, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/195028
Review Article

Biophysical Insights into Cancer Transformation and Treatment

1Institute of Photonics and Electronics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, AS CR, Chaberská 57, 182 51 Prague 8-Kobylisy, Czech Republic
2Institute of Translational Pharmacology, National Research Council-CNR, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome, Italy
3University of Applied Sciences of Southern Switzerland-SUPSI, Department of Innovative Technologies, Galleria 2, 6928 Manno, Switzerland
41st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Apolinářská 18, 128 00 Prague 2, Czech Republic
5Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technická 2, 166 27 Prague 6, Czech Republic
6Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Kladno, Sitná Square 3105, 272 01 Kladno, Czech Republic
71st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Institute of Physiology, Albertov 5, 128 00 Prague 2, Czech Republic
83rd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Ruská 87, 100 00 Prague 10, Czech Republic
9Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2J7

Received 31 January 2013; Accepted 9 May 2013

Academic Editors: A. Kukol, B. Schneider, and L. Strasak

Copyright © 2013 Jiří Pokorný et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. O. Warburg, K. Posener, and E. Negelein, “Über den stoffwechsel der carcinomzelle,” Biochem Z, vol. 152, pp. 309–344, 1924. View at Google Scholar
  2. O. Warburg, “On the origin of cancer cells,” Science, vol. 123, no. 3191, pp. 309–314, 1956. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. Cohen and S. Havlin, Complex Networks: Structure, Robustness and Function, Cambridge University Press, 2010.
  4. A. Hübler, C. Stephenson, D. Lyon, and R. Swindeman, “Fabrication and programming of large physically evolving networks,” Complexity, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 7–8, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. Kwapień and S. Droždž, “Physical approach to complex systems,” Physics Reports, vol. 15, no. 3-4, pp. 115–226, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  6. G. Nicolis and I. Prigogine, Self-Organization in Nonequilibrium Systems, John Willey & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1977.
  7. P. Hogeweg, “The roots of bioinformatics in theoretical biology,” PLoS Computational Biology, vol. 7, no. 3, Article ID e1002021, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. Pokorný, T. Martan, and A. Foletti, “High capacity optical channels for bioinformation transfer: acupuncture meridians,” Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 34–41, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. H. K. Roy, H. Subramanian, D. Damania et al., “Optical detection of buccal epithelial nanoarchitectural alterations in patients harboring lung cancer: implications for screening,” Cancer Research, vol. 70, no. 20, pp. 7748–7754, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. Y. Sun, C. Wang, and J. Dai, “Biophotons as neural communication signals demonstrated by in situ biophoton autography,” Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 315–322, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. H. Fröhlich, “Bose condensation of strongly excited longitudinal electric modes,” Physics Letters A, vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 402–403, 1968. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. H. Fröhlich, “Long-range coherence and energy storage in biological systems,” International Journal of Quantum Chemistry, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 641–649, 1968. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. H. Fröhlich, “Quantum mechanical concepts in biology,” in Theoretical Physics and Biology, M. Marois, Ed., pp. 13–22, North Holland, 1969, (Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on. Theoretical physics Biology, Versailles, France , 1967).
  14. H. Fröhlich, “Collective behaviour of non-linearly coupled oscillating fields (with applications to biological systems),” Journal of Collective Phenom, vol. 1, pp. 101–109, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  15. H. Fröhlich, “The biological effects of microwaves and related questions,” in Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, vol. 53, pp. 85–152, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  16. H. Fröhlich, “Coherent electric vibrations in biological systems and cancer problem,” IEEE Transactions MTT, vol. 26, pp. 613–617, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  17. H. A. Pohl, “Oscillating fields about growing cells,” International Journal of Quantum Chemistry, vol. 7, pp. 411–431, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  18. R. Holzel and I. Lamprecht, “Electromagnetic fields around biological cells,” Neural Network World, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 327–337, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. Hölzel, “Electric activity of non-excitable biological cells at radio frequencies,” Electro- and Magnetobiology, vol. 20, pp. 1–13, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  20. L. A. Amos and A. Klug, “Arrangement of subunits in flagellar microtubules,” Journal of Cell Science, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 523–549, 1974. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. A. Tuszyński, S. Hameroff, M. V. Satari Ć, B. Trpisová, and M. L. A. Nip, “Ferroelectric behavior in microtubule dipole lattices: implications for information processing, signaling and Assembly/Disassembly,” Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol. 174, no. 4, pp. 371–380, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. Pokorný, J. Hašek, F. Jelínek, J. Šaroch, and B. Palán, “Electromagnetic activity of yeast cells in the M phase,” Electro- and Magnetobiology, vol. 20, pp. 371–396, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  23. L. A. Amos, “Structure of microtubules,” in Microtubules, K. Roberts and J. S. Hyam, Eds., pp. 1–64, Academic Press, London, UK, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  24. H. Stebbings and C. Hunt, “The nature of the clear zone around microtubules,” Cell and Tissue Research, vol. 227, no. 3, pp. 609–617, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. G. N. Ling, “A new theoretical foundation for the polarized-oriented multilayer theory of cell water and for inanimate systems demonstrating long-range dynamic structuring of water molecules,” Physiological Chemistry and Physics and Medical NMR, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 91–130, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. Zheng and G. H. Pollack, “Long-range forces extending from polymer-gel surfaces,” Physical Review E, vol. 68, no. 3, part 1, Article ID 031408, 1 pages, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  27. G. Pollack, I. Cameron, and D. Wheatley, Water and the Cell, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2006.
  28. J. Zheng, W. Chin, E. Khijniak, E. Khijniak Jr., and G. H. Pollack, “Surfaces and interfacial water: evidence that hydrophilic surfaces have long-range impact,” Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 127, no. 1, pp. 19–27, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. Pokorný, “Physical aspects of biological activity and cancer,” AIP Advances, vol. 2, no. 1, Article ID 011207, 11 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. K. M. Tyner, R. Kopelman, and M. A. Philbert, “‘Nanosized voltmeter’ enables cellular-wide electric field mapping,” Biophysical Journal, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 1163–1174, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. G. Preparata, QED Coherence in Matter, World Scientific, Hong Kong, China, 1995.
  32. E. Del Giudice, V. Elia, and A. Tedeschi, “The role of water in the living organisms,” Neural Network World, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 355–360, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. E. Del Giudice and A. Tedeschi, “Water and autocatalysis in living matter,” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 46–52, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. E. Pelling, S. Sehati, E. B. Gralla, J. S. Valentine, and J. K. Gimzewski, “Local nanomechanical motion of the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae,” Science, vol. 305, no. 5687, pp. 1147–1150, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. E. Pelling, S. Sehati, E. B. Gralla, and J. K. Gimzewski, “Time dependence of the frequency and amplitude of the local nanomechanical motion of yeast,” Nanomedicine, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 178–183, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. Pokorný, J. Hašek, J. Vaniš, and F. Jelínek, “Biophysical aspects of cancer—electromagnetic mechanism,” Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 46, pp. 310–321, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  37. F. Jelínek, M. Cifra, J. Pokorný et al., “Measurement of electrical oscillations and mechanical vibrations of yeast cells membrane around 1 kHz,” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 28, pp. 223–232, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  38. E. D. Kirson, Z. Gurvich, R. Schneiderman et al., “Disruption of cancer cell replication by alternating electric fields,” Cancer Research, vol. 64, no. 9, pp. 3288–3295, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. E. D. Kirson, V. Dbalý, F. Tovaryš et al., “Alternating electric fields arrest cell proliferation in animal tumor models and human brain tumors,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 104, no. 24, pp. 10152–10157, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. C. Vedruccio and A. Meessen, “EM cancer detection by means of non-linear resonance interaction,” in Proceedings of the Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium (PIERS '04), pp. 909–912, March 2004. View at Scopus
  41. J. Pokorný, C. Vedruccio, M. Cifra, and O. Kučera, “Cancer physics: diagnostics based on damped cellular elastoelectrical vibrations in microtubules,” European Biophysics Journal, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 747–759, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. R. Damadian, “Tumor detection by nuclear magnetic resonance,” Science, vol. 171, no. 3976, pp. 1151–1153, 1971. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. G. Albrecht-Buehler, “Surface extensions of 3T3 cells towards distant infrared light sources,” Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 114, no. 3, pp. 493–502, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. G. Albrecht-Buehler, “Rudimentary form of cellular ‘vision’,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 89, no. 17, pp. 8288–8292, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. G. Albrecht-Buehler, “A long-range attraction between aggregating 3T3 cells mediated by near-infrared light scattering,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 102, no. 14, pp. 5050–5055, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. Sahu, S. Ghosh, B. Ghosh et al., “Atomic water channel controlling remarkable properties of a single brain microtubule: correlating single protein to its supramolecular assembly,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 47, pp. 141–148, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  47. S. Sahu, S. Ghosh, K. Hirata, D. Fujita, and A. Bandyopadhyay, “Multi-level memory-switching properties of a single brain microtubule,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 102, no. 12, Article ID 123701, 4 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. J. Pokorný, “Biophysical cancer transformation pathway,” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 28, pp. 105–123, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  49. J. Pokorný, “Fröhlich’s coherent vibrations in healthy and cancer cells,” Neural Network World, vol. 19, pp. 369–378, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  50. J. Pokorný, “Endogenous electromagnetic forces in living cells: implications for transfer of reaction components,” Electro- and Magnetobiology, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 59–73, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. J. Pokorný, J. Hašek, and F. Jelínek, “Electromagnetic field of microtubules: effects on transfer of mass particles and electrons,” Journal of Biological Physics, vol. 31, pp. 401–514, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  52. J. Pokorný, J. Hašek, and F. Jelínek, “Endogenous electric field and organization of living matter,” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 24, pp. 185–197, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  53. J. Pokorný, “The role of Fröhlich’s coherent excitations in cancer transformation of cells,” in Herbert Fröhlich, FRS: A Physicist Ahead of his Time, G. J. Hyland and P. Rowlands, Eds., pp. 177–207, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  54. S. Bonnet, S. L. Archer, J. Allalunis-Turner et al., “A mitochondria-K+ channel axis is suppressed in cancer and its normalization promotes apoptosis and inhibits cancer growth,” Cancer Cell, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 37–51, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. S. Carew and P. Huang, “Mitochondrial defects in cancer,” Molecular Cancer, vol. 1, article 9, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. J. M. Cuezva, M. Krajewska, M. López de Heredia et al., “The bioenergetic signature of cancer: a marker of tumor progression,” Cancer Research, vol. 62, no. 22, pp. 6674–6681, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. E. D. Michelakis, L. Webster, and J. R. Mackey, “Dichloroacetate (DCA) as a potential metabolic-targeting therapy for cancer,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 99, no. 7, pp. 989–994, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. L. B. Chen, “Mitochondrial membrane potential in living cells,” Annual Review of Cell Biology, vol. 4, pp. 155–181, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. S. Pavlides, D. Whitaker-Menezes, R. Castello-Cros et al., “The reverse Warburg effect: aerobic glycolysis in cancer associated fibroblasts and the tumor stroma,” Cell Cycle, vol. 8, no. 23, pp. 3984–4001, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. G. Bonuccelli, D. Whitaker-Menezes, R. Castello-Cros et al., “The reverse Warburg effect: glycolysis inhibitors prevent the tumor promoting effects of caveolin-1 deficient cancer associated fibroblasts,” Cell Cycle, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 1960–1971, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. U. E. Martinez-Outschoorn, R. M. Balliet, D. B. Rivadeneira et al., “Oxidative stress in cancer associated fibroblasts drives tumor-stroma co-evolution: a new paradigm for understanding tumor metabolism, the field effect and genomic instability in cancer cells,” Cell Cycle, vol. 9, no. 16, pp. 3256–3276, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. M. P. Lisanti, U. E. Martinez-Outschoorn, B. Chiavarina et al., “Understanding the “lethal” drivers of tumor-stroma co-evolution: emerging role(s) for hypoxia, oxidative stress and autophagy/mitophagy in the tumor micro-environment,” Cancer Biology and Therapy, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 537–542, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. E. D. Michelakis, “Mitochondrial medicine: a new era in medicine opens new windows and brings new challenges,” Circulation, vol. 117, no. 19, pp. 2431–2434, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. R. C. Sun, M. Fadia, J. E. Dahlstrom, C. R. Parish, P. G. Board, and A. C. Blackburn, “Reversal of the glycolytic phenotype by dichloroacetate inhibits metastatic breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 120, no. 1, pp. 253–260, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. T. McFate, A. Mohyeldin, H. Lu et al., “Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity controls metabolic and malignant phenotype in cancer cells,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 283, no. 33, pp. 22700–22708, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. S. E. Cross, Y. Jin, J. Rao, and J. K. Gimzewski, “Nanomechanical analysis of cells from cancer patients,” Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 780–783, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. G. Y. H. Lee and C. T. Lim, “Biomechanics approaches to studying human diseases,” Trends in Biotechnology, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 111–118, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln et al., “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophysical Journal, vol. 88, no. 5, pp. 3689–3698, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. M. Beil, A. Micoulet, G. Von Wichert et al., “Sphingosylphosphorylcholine regulates keratin network architecture and visco-elastic properties of human cancer cells,” Nature Cell Biology, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 803–811, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. S. Suresh, J. Spatz, J. P. Mills et al., “Connections between single-cell biomechanics and human disease states: gastrointestinal cancer and malaria,” Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 15–30, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. S. Suresh, “Biomechanics and biophysics of cancer cells,” Acta Materialia, vol. 55, no. 12, pp. 3989–4014, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. A. Khan, “Use of oral dichloroacetate for palliation of leg pain arising from metastatic poorly differentiated carcinoma: a case report,” Journal of Palliative Medicine, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 973–977, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. J. Pokorný, M. Cifra, A. Jandová et al., “Targeting mitochondria for cancer treatment,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 17, pp. 23–36, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  74. P. W. Stacpoole, G. N. Henderson, Z. Yan, and M. O. James, “Clinical pharmacology and toxicology of dichloroacetate,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 106, no. 4, pp. 989–994, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. K. R. Foster and J. W. Baish, “Viscous damping of vibrations in microtubules,” Journal of Biological Physics, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 255–260, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. L. K. McKemmish, J. R. Reimers, R. H. McKenzie, A. E. Mark, and N. S. Hush, “Penrose-Hameroff orchestrated objective-reduction proposal for human consciousness is not biologically feasible,” Physical Review E, vol. 80, no. 2, part 1, Article ID 021912, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  77. J. R. Reimers, L. K. McKemmish, R. H. McKenzie, A. E. Mark, and N. S. Hush, “Weak, strong, and coherent regimes of Fröhlich condensation and their applications to terahertz medicine and quantum consciousness,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 106, no. 11, pp. 4219–4224, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. T. N. Seyfried and L. M. Shelton, “Cancer as a metabolic disease,” Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 7, article 7, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. A. Jandová, J. Pokorný, J. Kobilková et al., “Cell-mediated immunity in cervical cancer evolution,” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 28, pp. 1–14, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  80. R. R. Traill, “Asbestos as ‘toxic short-circuit’ optic-fibre for UV within the cell-net: likely roles and hazards for secret UV and IR metabolism,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Fröhlich’s Symposium, vol. 329 of Journal of Physics: Conference Series, p. 012017, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  81. S. Toyokuni, “Mechanisms of asbestos-induced carcinogenesis,” Nagoya Journal of Medical Science, vol. 71, no. 1-2, pp. 1–10, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. S. Toyokuni, “Iron-induced carcinogenesis: the role of redox regulation,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 553–566, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. J. Neuzil, M. Tomasetti, Y. Zhao et al., “Vitamin E analogs, a novel group of “mitocans,” as anticancer agents: the importance of being redox-silent,” Molecular Pharmacology, vol. 71, no. 5, pp. 1185–1199, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. K. Valis, L. Prochazka, E. Boura et al., “Hippo/Mst1 stimulates transcription of the proapoptotic mediator NOXA in a FoxO1-dependent manner,” Cancer Research, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 946–954, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. Ch. L.-L. Chiang, J. A. Ledermann, A. N. Rad, D. R. Katz, and B. M. Chain, “Hypochlorous acid enhances immunogenicity and uptake of allogeneic ovarian tumor cells by dendritic cells to cross-prime tumor-specific T cells,” Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy, vol. 55, no. 11, pp. 1384–1395, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus