The Scientific World Journal / 2013 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Chelation: Harnessing and Enhancing Heavy Metal Detoxification—A Review

Table 1

Overview of chelation drugs.

Chemical name
(common names, abbreviations)
StructureActivation metabolismCoordination (binding) groupsElements chelated

2,3-bis(sulfanyl)butanedioic acid (Dimercaptosuccinic acid; Succimer; Dimercaptosuccinic acid; DMSA; Suximer; Tin Salt; Succicaptal; Chemet)219840.tab.001Excretion via urine
>90% as DMSA—cysteine disulfide conjugates.
Oxygen and sulfhydrylLead
Arsenic
Mercury
Cadmium
Silver
Tin
Copper

Sodium 2,3-bis(sulfanyl)propane-1-sulfonate (Sodium Dimercaptopropanesulfonate; DMPS; Unithiol; Dimaval; Unitiol; (+)-DMPS; (−)-DMPS)219840.tab.00284% of IV dose excreted through urineOxygen and sulfhydrylMercury
Arsenic
Lead
Cadmium
Tin
Silver
Copper Selenium Zinc Magnesium

2-[2-[bis(carboxymethyl)amino]ethyl-(carboxymethyl)amino]acetic acid (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; Edetic acid; EDTA; Edathamil; Endrate; Versene acid; Sequestrol; Titriplex; Havidote; Cheelox; Versene; Calcium Disodium Versenate (edetate calcium disodium injection, USP)219840.tab.003Not metabolized. Excreted unchanged, generally coordinated with a different divalent cationOxygenLead
Cadmium
Zinc
(Mercury thought to be too strongly bound in tissues to be mobilized, but this is not clinical experience)

(2S)-2-amino-3-methyl-3-sulfanylbutanoic acid (3-Sulfanyl-D-valine; Penicillamine; D-Penicillamine; Cuprimine; Depen; Penicillamine; Mercaptyl; Artamine; Cuprenil; Perdolat; Trolovol219840.tab.004Rarely excreted unchanged; excreted mainly as disulfidesOxygen, hydroxyl, sulfhydryl, and amineCopper
(Wilson’s disease)
Arsenic
Zinc
Mercury
Lead

2,3-bis(sulfanyl)propan-1-ol (Dimercaprol; British Anti-Lewisite; BAL; 2,3-Dimercaptopropanol; Sulfactin; Dicaptol; Dimersol; Antoxol; Panobal; Dithioglycerine; Dithioglycerol)219840.tab.005Excreted unchanged in urineSulfhydryl and hydroxyl Arsenic
Gold
Mercury
Lead (BAL in combination with CaNa2EDTA)

Information from US National Library of Medicine PubChem: http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/search/search.cgi.