Table 1: Studies addressing the overdiagnosis of bipolar disorder.

Author/yearSampleGold standardFindings

Ghaemi et al. (2000) [9]Outpatients SCIDClinician-based diagnosis of BD: PPV of 34% and NPV of 95%
Stewart and El-Mallakh (2007) [10]Outpatients from a substance abuse treatment programDSM-IV criteriaOnly 42.9% of patients diagnosed with BD actually met diagnostic criteria
Goldberg et al. (2008) [11]Dual diagnosis inpatients SCIDOnly 33% of patients diagnosed with BD actually met criteria for that condition.
Misdiagnosis associated with cocaine and polysubstance abuse
Zimmerman et al. (2008) [8]Outpatients SCIDClinician-based diagnosis of BD: PPV of 37% and NPV of 95%
Ruggero et al. (2010) [12]Outpatients SCID40% of patients with borderline personality disorder mistakenly diagnosed with BD
Zimmerman et al. (2010) [13]Outpatients SCIDPatients overdiagnosed with BD were significantly more likely to receive disability payments
Chilakamarri et al. (2011) [14]Child outpatients DSM-IV criteriaMinimum number of patients misdiagnosed with BD; underdiagnosis was common

BD: bipolar disorder, SCID: structured clinical interview for DSM-IV disorders; PPV: positive predictive value; NPV: negative predictive value.