The Scientific World Journal / 2013 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Correlates of and Barriers to the Utilization of Health Services for Delivery in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa

Table 2

Logistic regression on “using health facility for delivery in the past 5 years” by selected variables.

Variables
KenyaNigeriaTanzaniaBangladeshIndiaPakistan
Odds ratioOdds ratioOdds ratioOdds ratioOdds ratioOdds ratio

Place of residence
 Rural0.59 (0.4, 0.8)0.77 (0.7, 0.9) 0.50 (0.4, 0.6)0.56 (0.5, 0.7)0.51 (0.5, 0.5)0.69 (0.6, 0.8)
 Urban (reference)1.001.001.001.001.001.00
Wife’s education
 None0.37 (0.3, 0.5)0.24 (0.2, 0.3)0.69 (0.5, 0.9)0.21 (0.1, 0.3)0.43 (0.4, 0.5)0.43 (0.4, 0.5)
 Primary0.56 (0.4, 0.7)0.54 (0.5, 0.6)0.91 (0.7, 1.2)0.45 (0.4, 0.6)0.65 (0.6, 0.7)0.60 (0.5, 0.7)
 Secondary+ (reference)1.001.001.001.001.001.00
Husband’s education
 None0.36 (0.3, 0.5)0.60 (0.5, 0.7)0.61 (0.5, 0.8)0.57 (0.4, 0.8)0.89 (0.8, 1.0)0.78 (0.7, 0.9)
 Primary0.68 (0.6, 0.8)1.06 (1.0, 1.2)1.03 (0.8, 1.3)0.56 (0.4, 0.7)1.05 (1.0, 1.1)0.83 (0.7, 1.0)
 Secondary+ (reference)1.001.001.001.001.001.00
Women’s work
 Not working0.83 (0.7, 1.0)0.70 (0.6, 0.8)0.94 (0.8, 1.1)1.12 (0.9, 1.4)1.03 (1.0, 1.1)1.02 (0.9, 1.2)
 Working (reference)1.001.001.001.001.001.00
Final say on own health care
 No1.00 (0.8, 1.2)0.64 (0.6, 0.7)0.93 (0.8, 1.1)0.96 (0.8, 1.2)1.07 (1.0, 1.1)
 Yes (reference)1.001.001.001.001.00
Wealth index
 Poorest0.18 (0.1, 0.3)0.10 (0.1, 0.1)0.28 (0.2, 0.4)0.33 (0.2, 0.5)0.14 (0.1, 0.2)0.18 (0.1, 0.2)
 Poorer0.29 (0.2, 0.4)0.17 (0.2, 0.2)0.32 (0.2, 0.4)0.22 (0.2, 0.3)0.20 (0.2, 0.2)0.25 (0.2, 0.3)
 Middle0.44 (0.3, 0.6)0.30 (0.3, 0.4)0.44 (0.3, 0.6)0.33 (0.2, 0.4)0.33 (0.3, 0.4)0.32 (0.3, 0.4)
 Richer0.51 (0.4, 0.7)0.51 (0.4, 0.6)0.53 (0.4, 0.7)0.46 (0.4, 0.6)0.49 (0.5, 0.5)0.51 (0.4, 0.6)
 Richest (reference)1.001.001.001.001.001.00
Media exposure
 Low0.68 (0.6, 0.8)0.83 (0.8, 0.9)0.80 (0.7, 1.0)0.67 (0.6, 0.8)0.67 (0.6, 0.7)
 High (reference)1.001.001.001.001.00
Age
 <300.61 (0.4, 0.9)0.58 (0.5, 0.7)0.60 (0.5, 0.8)0.45 (0.2, 0.9)0.73 (0.6, 0.9)0.65 (0.5, 0.9)
 30–390.87 (0.6, 1.2)0.88 (0.8, 1.0)0.82 (0.7, 1.0)0.84 (0.4, 1.7)1.06 (0.9, 1.3)0.81 (0.6, 1.0)
 40+ (reference)1.001.001.001.001.001.00
Birth parity
 1-22.56 (1.9, 3.4)1.83 (1.6, 2.1)2.33 (1.9, 2.9)4.40 (2.7, 7.3)3.71 (3.4, 4.1)1.99 (1.7, 2.4)
 3-41.75 (1.4, 2.2)1.35 (1.2, 1.5)1.51 (1.3, 1.8)2.18 (1.3, 3.6)1.67 (1.5, 1.8)1.26 (1.1, 1.5)
 5+ (reference)1.001.001.001.001.001.00

Constant8.768.084.430.843.334.08

Figures in brackets show 95 percent confidence intervals.

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