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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2013, Article ID 427369, 9 pages
Research Article

Cooccurrence of Mycotoxins in Maize and Poultry Feeds from Brazil by Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

1EMBRAPA Food Technology, Avenida das Américas 29501, 23020-470 Rio de Janeiro RJ, Brazil
2Núcleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-902 Rio de Janeiro RJ, Brazil
3Center for Analytical Chemistry, Department for Agrobiotechnology, IFA-Tulln, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Konrad-Lorenz-Street 20, 3430 Tulln, Austria
4CIRAD, Département PERSYST, UMR QualiSud, TA B-95/16, 73 rue Jean-François Breton, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
5Department of Clinical Analysis, Toxicology Laboratory, State University of Maringá, Colombo Avenue 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, Brazil
6MAPA, Avenida Raja Gabaglia 245, Cidade Jardim, 30380-090 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil

Received 30 August 2013; Accepted 23 September 2013

Academic Editors: S. Dailianis, C. Montoliu, and J. Pungercar

Copyright © 2013 Maria de Lourdes Mendes de Souza et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The objective of this study was to quantitatively evaluate mycotoxins in samples of maize and poultry feed produced in Brazil. A multimycotoxin method based on HPLC-MS/MS was applied to investigate the occurrence of toxical fungal metabolites in 119 samples collected from poultry feed factory integrated poultry farms: maize grain (74), poultry feed (36), and feed factory residue (9). Twenty of 101 fungal metabolites investigated were detected and quantified in the samples: aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, fumonisins B1, B2, and B3, hydrolyzed fumonisin B1, zearalenone, agroclavine, chanoclavine, deoxynivalenol, and nivalenol, and enniatin A, A1, B, B1, beauvericin, kojic acid, and moniliformin. Most samples were contaminated with more than one mycotoxin. All samples were contaminated with fumonisins, with medians values of 1,840 μg/kg, 239 μg/kg, and 23,676 μg/kg for maize, feed, and factory residue samples, respectively. Surprisingly, beauvericin was detected in more than 90% of samples. The median contaminations of aflatoxin and trichothecenes were low, near LOD values. The factory residue presented highest contamination levels for all mycotoxins. This is the first study dealing with agroclavine, chanoclavine, enniatin A, A1, B, B1, beauvericin, and kojic acid contamination of maize and poultry feeds from Brazil.