Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2013, Article ID 439073, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/439073
Clinical Study

T4-Locally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Prognostic Influence of Cranial Nerve Involvement in Different Radiotherapy Techniques

1Department of Otolaryngology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, No. 201, Section 2, Shih-Pai Road, Taipei City 11217, Taiwan
2School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, No. 201, Section 2, Shih-Pai Road, Taipei City 11217, Taiwan

Received 2 October 2013; Accepted 19 November 2013

Academic Editors: M. C. Chau and T. Yoshizaki

Copyright © 2013 Hsin-I Huang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Department of Health TEY, Taiwan, “Cancer registry annual report 2007,” Tech. Rep., Department of Health TEY, Taipei City, Taiwan, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  2. M. M. Hsu and S. M. Tu, “Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Taiwan. Clinical manifestations and results of therapy,” Cancer, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 362–368, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. Faivre, F. Janot, and J.-P. Armand, “Optimal management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma,” Current Opinion in Oncology, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 231–235, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M.-T. Liu, C.-Y. Hsieh, T.-H. Chang, J.-P. Lin, C.-C. Huang, and A.-Y. Wang, “Prognostic factors affecting the outcome of nasopharyngeal carcinoma,” Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 33, no. 10, pp. 501–508, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. F. Caponigro, F. Longo, F. Ionna, and F. Perri, “Treatment approaches to nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a review,” Anti-Cancer Drugs, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 471–477, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. Agulnik and L. L. Siu, “State-of-the-art management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: current and future directions,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 799–806, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J.-C. Li, N. A. Mayr, W. T. C. Yuh, J. Z. Wang, and G.-L. Jiang, “Cranial nerve involvement in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: response to radiotherapy and its clinical impact,” Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, vol. 115, no. 5, pp. 340–345, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. K. M. Kam, P. M. L. Teo, R. M. C. Chau et al., “Treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with intensity-modulated radiotherapy: the Hong Kong experience,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 1440–1450, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. N. Lee, P. Xia, J. M. Quivey et al., “Intensity-modulated radiotherapy in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: an update of the UCSF experience,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 12–22, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  10. S. L. Wolden, W. C. Chen, D. G. Pfister, D. H. Kraus, S. L. Berry, and M. J. Zelefsky, “Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for nasopharynx cancer: update of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering experience,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 57–62, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. E. Özyar, M. Gurkaynak, F. Yildiz, and I. L. Atahan, “Non-metastatic stage IV nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients: analysis of the pattern of relapse and survival,” Radiotherapy and Oncology, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 71–77, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. B. Edge and C. C. Compton, “The American Joint Committee on Cancer: the 7th edition of the AJCC cancer staging manual and the future of TNM,” Annals of Surgical Oncology, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1471–1474, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Altun, N. Tenekeci, E. Kaytan, and R. Meral, “Locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: computed tomography findings, clinical evaluation, and treatment outcome,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 401–404, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M.-S. Chen, F.-J. Lin, S. G. Tang, W.-M. Leung, and W. Leung, “Clinical significance of cranial nerve deficit in the therapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma,” British Journal of Radiology, vol. 62, no. 740, pp. 739–743, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J.-L. Roh, M.-W. Sung, K. H. Kim et al., “Nasopharyngeal carcinoma with skull base invasion: a necessity of staging subdivision,” American Journal of Otolaryngology, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 26–32, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S.-Z. Lai, W.-F. Li, L. Chen et al., “How does intensity-modulated radiotherapy versus conventional two-dimensional radiotherapy influence the treatment results in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients?” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 661–668, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. W. T. Ng, M. C. H. Lee, W. M. Hung et al., “Clinical outcomes and patterns of failure after intensity-modulated radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 420–428, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. W. N. Lee, J. S. K. Au, P. M. L. Teo et al., “Staging of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: suggestions for improving the current UICC/AJCC staging system,” Clinical Oncology, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 269–276, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. Turgut, Ö. Ertürk, S. Saygi, and O. E. Özcan, “Importance of cranial nerve involvement in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. A clinical study comprising 124 cases with special reference to clinical presentation and prognosis,” Neurosurgical Review, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 243–248, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. T.-C. Chang, C.-Y. Lin, T.-M. Chen et al., “Nasopharyngeal carcinoma with cranial nerve palsy: the importance of MRI for radiotherapy,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 1354–1360, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. S. Cooper, J. del Rowe, and J. Newall, “Regional stage IV carcinoma of the nasopharynx treated by aggressive radiotherapy,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 1737–1745, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus