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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2013, Article ID 507397, 6 pages
Review Article

The Assessment Methods of Laryngeal Muscle Activity in Muscle Tension Dysphonia: A Review

1Department of Speech Therapy, School of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Enghelab Avenue, Pitch-e-shemiran, Tehran 11489, Iran
2Department of Physiotherapy, School of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3Department of Ear, Nose, Throat, Head and Neck Research Center, Hazrat-e-Rasoul Hospital, Tehran, Iran

Received 28 August 2013; Accepted 19 September 2013

Academic Editors: P. Clarke and A. Teymoortash

Copyright © 2013 Seyyedeh Maryam Khoddami et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The purpose of this paper is to review the methods used for the assessment of muscular tension dysphonia (MTD). The MTD is a functional voice disorder associated with abnormal laryngeal muscle activity. Various assessment methods are available in the literature to evaluate the laryngeal hyperfunction. The case history, laryngoscopy, and palpation are clinical methods for the assessment of patients with MTD. Radiography and surface electromyography (EMG) are objective methods to provide physiological information about MTD. Recent studies show that surface EMG can be an effective tool for assessing muscular tension in MTD.