The Scientific World Journal / 2013 / Article / Tab 3

Research Article

Immigrant Health Inequalities in the United States: Use of Eight Major National Data Systems

Table 3

Infant mortality rates per 1,000 live births and prevalence (%) of sociodemographic and medical risk factors for selected ethnic-immigrant groups, United States, 1999–2002 ( live births).

Ethnic-nativity groupTeen birth (maternal age 19 years)Maternal education 16 yearsDelayed or no prenatal careSmoking during pregnancyLow birthweightPreterm birthGestational diabetesChronic/pregnancy hypertensionInfant mortality rateUnadjusted infant mortality risk ratio4Adjusted infant mortality risk ratio595% confidence interval

Total population
 US-born112.4726.223.2314.278.0112.162.865.097.211.39*1.261.23–1.29
 Foreign-born28.0320.335.602.066.4810.173.572.835.17Reference1.00Reference
Non-Hispanic white
 US-born8.8132.352.1916.026.7810.752.885.165.741.25*1.211.16–1.26
 Foreign-born3.2541.333.485.676.009.323.063.894.59Reference1.00Reference
Non-Hispanic black
 US-born21.0910.626.4310.1013.6217.982.605.6413.841.43*1.411.36–1.48
 Foreign-born5.5523.456.841.309.8414.014.284.869.71Reference1.00Reference
Chinese
 US-born3.5673.771.423.117.3610.064.363.232.960.960.870.61–1.24
 Foreign-born0.5854.122.240.325.067.244.911.333.08Reference1.00Reference
Japanese
 US-born3.4058.231.455.658.0210.805.344.145.371.47*1.350.97–1.89
 Foreign-born0.4348.292.282.917.087.432.391.413.65Reference1.00Reference
Filipino
 US-born12.5732.923.056.899.4112.893.844.035.841.040.940.78–1.15
 Foreign-born3.0244.442.901.938.3612.355.623.905.62Reference1.00Reference
Asian Indian3
 US-born6.1760.693.614.0410.0311.023.972.937.281.81*1.581.05–2.36
 Foreign-born1.0954.703.890.269.459.878.002.444.02Reference1.00Reference
Korean3
 US-born8.5956.042.878.056.389.633.003.383.260.830.700.34–1.46
 Foreign-born0.8960.603.223.144.797.172.681.543.92Reference1.00Reference
Vietnamese3
 US-born27.3017.666.1910.707.7210.392.242.744.801.221.260.60–2.63
 Foreign-born1.5626.332.040.736.459.903.851.453.95Reference1.00Reference
Mexican
 US-born24.137.844.705.186.9112.152.603.486.141.25*1.301.25–1.35
 Foreign-born12.273.687.340.755.5710.643.072.524.90Reference1.00Reference
Puerto Rican
 Mainland US-born21.329.324.6511.159.4713.773.543.738.331.051.000.91–1.10
 Island/foreign-born16.1113.854.347.529.3413.634.233.837.95Reference1.00Reference
Central and South American
 US-born20.3121.813.524.787.3411.252.403.675.521.15*1.171.03–1.34
 Foreign-born8.0513.545.510.946.3411.193.063.064.82Reference1.00Reference

US-born are those born in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. 2Foreign-born are those born outside these territories. 3Data for Asian Indians, Koreans, and Vietnamese were available for only 11 states: CA, HI, IL, MI, MO, NJ, NY, TX, VA, WA, and WV. * . 4Risk ratio: ratio of the infant mortality rate or risk for the US-born in each ethnic group to that for the corresponding immigrant group. 5Adjusted by Cox proportional hazards regression for maternal age, marital status, birth order, infant sex, plurality, maternal education, prenatal care, and smoking during pregnancy.
Source: data derived from the 1999–2002 US National Linked Birth and Infant Death data files, see also [13].