Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2013, Article ID 645653, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/645653
Review Article

Treatment of Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus Bronchopulmonary Infection in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

1Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar 751019, India
2Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India
3Department of Pediatrics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012, India

Received 9 August 2013; Accepted 2 October 2013

Academic Editors: A. Sihoe and F. Varoli

Copyright © 2013 Rashmi Ranjan Das et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. B. P. O'Sullivan and S. D. Freedman, “Cystic fibrosis,” The Lancet, vol. 373, no. 9678, pp. 1891–1904, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. K. S. McCoy, A. L. Quittner, C. M. Oermann, R. L. Gibson, G. Z. Retsch-Bogart, and A. B. Montgomery, “Inhaled aztreonam lysine for chronic airway Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 178, no. 9, pp. 921–928, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. G. Z. Retsch-Bogart, J. L. Burns, K. L. Otto et al., “A phase 2 study of aztreonam lysine for inhalation to treat patients with cystic fibrosis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection,” Pediatric Pulmonology, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 47–58, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. G. Z. Retsch-Bogart, A. L. Quittner, R. L. Gibson et al., “Efficacy and safety of inhaled aztreonam lysine for airway pseudomonas in cystic fibrosis,” Chest, vol. 135, no. 5, pp. 1223–1232, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. M. Oermann, G. Z. Retsch-bogart, A. L. Quittner et al., “An 18-month study of the safety and efficacy of repeated courses of inhaled aztreonam lysine in cystic fibrosis,” Pediatric Pulmonology, vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 1121–1134, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. E. Wainwright, A. L. Quittner, D. E. Geller et al., “Aztreonam for inhalation solution (AZLI) in patients with cystic fibrosis, mild lung impairment, and P. aeruginosa,” Journal of Cystic fibrosis, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 234–242, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. Chuchalin, E. Csiszér, K. Gyurkovics et al., “A formulation of aerosolized tobramycin (Bramitob) in the treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study,” Pediatric Drugs, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 21–31, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. G. Lenoir, Y. G. Antypkin, A. Miano et al., “Efficacy, safety, and local pharmacokinetics of highly concentrated nebulized tobramycin in patients with cystic fibrosis colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa,” Pediatric Drugs, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 11–20, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. I. B. MacLusky, R. Gold, M. Corey, and H. Levison, “Long-term effects of inhaled tobramycin in patients with cystic fibrosis colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa,” Pediatric pulmonology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 42–48, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. T. D. Murphy, R. D. Anbar, L. A. Lester et al., “Treatment with tobramycin solution for inhalation reduces hospitalizations in young CF subjects with mild lung disease,” Pediatric Pulmonology, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 314–320, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. B. W. Ramsey, H. L. Dorkin, J. D. Eisenberg et al., “Efficacy of aerosolized tobramycin in patients with cystic fibrosis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 328, no. 24, pp. 1740–1746, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. W. B. Ramsey, M. S. Pepe, and J. M. Quan, “Intermittent administration of inhaled tobramycin in patients with cvstic fibrosis,” Pneumologie, vol. 53, no. 4, p. 239, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. B. Moss, “Long-term benefits of inhaled tobramycin in adolescent patients with cystic fibrosis,” Chest, vol. 121, no. 1, pp. 55–63, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. I. Stelmach, A. Korzeniewska, and W. Stelmach, “Long-term benefits of inhaled tobramycin in children with cystic fibrosis: first clinical observations from Poland,” Respiration, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 178–181, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. I. Galeva, M. W. Konstan, M. Higgins, G. Angyalosi, F. Brockhaus, S. Piggott et al., “Tobramycin inhalation powder manufactured by improved process in cystic fibrosis: the randomized EDIT trial,” Current Medical Research and Opinion, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 947–956, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  16. M. W. Konstan, D. E. Geller, P. Minić, F. Brockhaus, J. Zhang, and G. Angyalosi, “Tobramycin inhalation powder for P. aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis: the EVOLVE trial,” Pediatric Pulmonology, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 230–238, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. T. Jensen, S. S. Pedersen, and S. Garne, “Colistin inhalation therapy in cystic fibrosis patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 831–838, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. J. Day, J. Williams, C. McKeown, A. Bruton, and P. H. Weller, “Evaluation of inhaled colomycin in children with cystic Fibrosis,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Cystic fibrosis Congress, 1988.
  19. V. Nikonova, E. Zhekayte, and N. Kapranov, “Efficacy and safety of colistin for inhalation in children 5 years old and younger with cystic fibrosis with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection,” Journal of Cystic fibrosis, vol. 4, p. S100, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  20. J. Wolter, S. Seeney, S. Bell, S. Bowler, P. Masel, and J. McCormack, “Effect of long term treatment with azithromycin on disease parameters in cystic fibrosis: a randomised trial,” Thorax, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 212–216, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. Equi, I. M. Balfour-Lynn, A. Bush, and M. Rosenthal, “Long term azithromycin in children with cystic fibrosis: a randomised, placebo-controlled crossover trial,” The Lancet, vol. 360, no. 9338, pp. 978–984, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. L. Saiman, B. C. Marshall, N. Mayer-Hamblett et al., “Azithromycin in patients with cystic fibrosis chronically Infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a randomized controlled trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 290, no. 13, pp. 1749–1756, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. Clement, A. Tamalet, E. Leroux, S. Ravilly, B. Fauroux, and J.-P. Jais, “Long term effects of azithromycin in patients with cystic fibrosis: a double blind, placebo controlled trial,” Thorax, vol. 61, no. 10, pp. 895–902, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. G. Steinkamp, S. Schmitt-Grohe, G. Döring et al., “Once-weekly azithromycin in cystic fibrosis with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection,” Respiratory Medicine, vol. 102, no. 11, pp. 1643–1653, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. L. Saiman, M. Anstead, N. Mayer-Hamblett et al., “Effect of azithromycin on pulmonary function in patients with cystic fibrosis uninfected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a randomized controlled trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 303, no. 17, pp. 1707–1715, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. V. A. Loening-Baucke, E. Mischler, and M. G. Myers, “A placebo-controlled trial of cephalexin therapy in the ambulatory management of patients with cystic fibrosis,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 630–637, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. L. T. Weaver, M. R. Green, K. Nicholson et al., “Prognosis in cystic fibrosis treated with continuous flucloxacillin from the neonatal period,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 84–89, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. G. Nolan, P. McIvor, and H. Levison, “Antibiotic prophylaxis in cystic fibrosis: inhaled cephaloridine as an adjunct to oral cloxacillin,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 101, no. 4, pp. 626–630, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. F. Ratjen, G. Comes, K. Paul, H. G. Posselt, T. O. Wagner, and K. Harms, “German Board of the European Registry for Cystic fibrosis (ERCF). Effect of continuous antistaphylococcal therapy on the rate of P. aeruginosa acquisition in patients with cystic fibrosis,” Pediatric Pulmonology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 13–16, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  30. H. R. Stutman, J. M. Lieberman, E. Nussbaum, and M. I. Marks, “Antibiotic prophylaxis in infants and young children with cystic fibrosis: a randomized controlled trial,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 140, no. 3, pp. 299–305, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. Solís, D. Brown, J. Hughes, H. K. F. Van Saene, and D. P. Heaf, “Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in children with cystic fibrosis: an eradication protocol,” Pediatric Pulmonology, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 189–195, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. Macfarlane, A. Leavy, J. McCaughan, R. Fair, and A. J. M. Reid, “Successful decolonization of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in paediatric patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) using a three-step protocol,” Journal of Hospital Infection, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 231–236, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. L. A. Garske, T. J. Kidd, R. Gan et al., “Rifampicin and sodium fusidate reduces the frequency of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolation in adults with cystic fibrosis and chronic MRSA infection,” Journal of Hospital Infection, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 208–214, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. K. Halton, J. Zobell, M. MacKay, R. Ensign, and B. A. Chatfield, “Evaluation of the effectiveness of a MRSA eradication protocol in pediatric CF patients,” Pediatric Pulmonology, vol. 32, p. 339, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  35. E. Vanderhelst, E. De Wachter, J. Willekens, D. Piérard, W. Vincken, and A. Malfroot, “Eradication of chronic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in cystic fibrosis patients. An observational prospective cohort study of 11 patients,” Journal of Cystic Fibrosis, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 662–666, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. S. C. L. Hewer and A. R. Smyth, “Antibiotic strategies for eradicating Pseudomonas aeruginosa in people with cystic fibrosis,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 7, no. 4, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. H. G. Wiesemann, G. Steinkamp, F. Ratjen et al., “Placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized study of aerolized tobramycin for early treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization in cystic fibrosis,” Pediatric Pulmonology, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 88–92, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  38. R. L. Gibson, J. Emerson, S. McNamara et al., “Significant microbiological effect of inhaled tobramycin in young children with cystic fibrosis,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 167, no. 6, pp. 841–849, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. Proesmans, F. Vermeulen, L. Boulanger, J. Verhaegen, and K. De Boeck, “Comparison of two treatment regimens for eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in children with cystic fibrosis,” Journal of Cystic fibrosis, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 29–34, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  40. F. Ratjen, G. Doring, and W. H. Nikolaizik, “Effect of inhaled tobramycin on early Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonisation in patients with cystic fibrosis,” The Lancet, vol. 358, no. 9286, pp. 983–984, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. R. L. Gibson, J. Emerson, N. Mayer-Hamblett et al., “Duration of treatment effect after tobramycin solution for inhalation in young children with cystic fibrosis,” Pediatric Pulmonology, vol. 42, no. 7, pp. 610–623, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. F. Ratjen, A. Munck, P. Kho, and G. Angyalosi, “Treatment of early Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in patients with cystic fibrosis: the ELITE trial,” Thorax, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 286–291, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. M. M. Treggiari, G. Retsch-Bogart, N. Mayer-Hamblett et al., “Comparative efficacy and safety of 4 randomized regimens to treat early Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in children with cystic fibrosis,” Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, vol. 165, no. 9, pp. 847–856, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. G. Taccetti, E. Bianchini, L. Cariani et al., “Early antibiotic treatment for Pseudomonas aeruginosa eradication in patients with cystic fibrosis: a randomised multicentre study comparing two different protocols,” Thorax, vol. 67, no. 10, pp. 853–859, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. J. M. Littlewood, M. G. Miller, A. T. Ghoneim, and C. H. Ramsden, “Nebulised colomycin for early pseudomonas colonisation in cystic fibrosis,” The Lancet, vol. 1, no. 8433, p. 865, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. N. H. Valerius, C. Koch, and N. Hoiby, “Prevention of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonisation in cystic fibrosis by early treatment,” The Lancet, vol. 338, no. 8769, pp. 725–726, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. B. Frederiksen, C. Koch, and N. Høiby, “Antibiotic treatment of initial colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa postpones chronic infection and prevents deterioration of pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis,” Pediatric Pulmonology, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 330–335, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  48. C. R. Hansen, T. Pressler, and N. Høiby, “Early aggressive eradication therapy for intermittent Pseudomonas aeruginosa airway colonization in cystic fibrosis patients: 15 years experience,” Journal of Cystic Fibrosis, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 523–530, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. P. Schelstraete, P. Deschaght, L. Van Simaey et al., “Genotype based evaluation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa eradication treatment success in cystic fibrosis patients,” Journal of Cystic Fibrosis, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 99–103, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. C. Vazquez, M. Municio, M. Corera, L. Gaztelurrutia, A. Sojo, and J. C. Vitoria, “Early treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization in cystic fibrosis,” Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 308–309, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. G. Steinkamp, B. Tummler, R. Malottke, and H. Von der Hardt, “Treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonisation in cystic fibrosis,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 64, no. 7, pp. 1022–1028, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. A. Munck, S. Bonacorsi, P. Mariani-Kurkdjian et al., “Genotypic characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains recovered from patients with cystic fibrosis after initial and subsequent colonization,” Pediatric Pulmonology, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 288–292, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. Griese, I. Müller, and D. Reinhardt, “Eradication of initial Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization in patients with cystic fibrosis,” European journal of medical research, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 79–80, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. G. M. Nixon, D. S. Armstrong, R. Carzino et al., “Clinical outcome after early Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 138, no. 5, pp. 699–704, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. T. A. Douglas, S. Brennan, L. Berry et al., “Value of serology in predicting Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in young children with cystic fibrosis,” Thorax, vol. 65, no. 11, pp. 985–990, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. B. Stuart, J. H. Lin, and P. J. Mogayzel, “Early eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients with cystic fibrosis,” Paediatric Respiratory Reviews, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 177–184, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. G. Ryan, M. Singh, and K. Dwan, “Inhaled antibiotics for long-term therapy in cystic fibrosis,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 16, no. 3, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. B. M. Assael, T. Pressler, D. Bilton, M. Fayon, R. Fischer, R. Chiron et al., “Inhaled aztreonam lysine vs. inhaled tobramycin in cystic fibrosis: a comparative efficacy trial,” Journal of Cystic fibrosis, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 130–140, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  59. B. C. Trapnell, S. A. McColley, D. G. Kissner et al., “Fosfomycin/tobramycin for inhalation in patients with cystic fibrosis with Pseudomonas airway infection,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 185, no. 2, pp. 171–178, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. M. E. Hodson, C. G. Gallagher, and J. R. W. Govan, “A randomised clinical trial of nebulised tobramycin or colistin in cystic fibrosis,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 658–664, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. A. Schuster, C. Haliburn, G. Döring, and M. H. Goldman, “Freedom Study Group. Safety, efficacy and convenience of colistimethate sodium dry powder for inhalation (Colobreathe DPI) in patients with cystic fibrosis: a randomised study,” Thorax, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 344–350, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  62. D. E. Geller, P. A. Flume, D. Staab, R. Fischer, J. S. Loutit, and D. J. Conrad, “Levofloxacin inhalation solution (MP-376) in patients with cystic fibrosis with Pseudomonas aeruginosa,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 183, no. 11, pp. 1510–1516, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. M. E. Hodson, A. R. L. Penketh, and J. C. Batten, “Aerosol carbenicillin and gentamicin treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in patients with cystic fibrosis,” The Lancet, vol. 2, no. 8256, pp. 1137–1139, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. P. Kun, L. I. Landau, and P. D. Phelan, “Nebulized gentamicin in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis,” Australian Paediatric Journal, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 43–45, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. I. Nathanson, G. J. A. Cropp, P. Li, and P. Neter, “Effectiveness of aerosolized gentamicin in cystic fibrosis (CF),” Cystic Fibrosis Club Abstracts, vol. 28, p. 145, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  66. R. J. Stead, M. E. Hodson, and J. C. Batten, “Inhaled ceftazidime compared with gentamicin and carbenicillin in older patients with cystic fibrosis infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa,” British Journal of Diseases of the Chest, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 272–279, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. C. D. Sheldon, B. K. Assoufi, and M. E. Hodson, “Regular three monthly oral ciprofloxacin in adult cystic fibrosis patients infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa,” Respiratory Medicine, vol. 87, no. 8, pp. 587–593, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. U. B. Schaad, J. Wedgwood, A. Ruedeberg, R. Kraemer, and B. Hampel, “Ciprofloxacin as antipseudomonal treatment in patients with cystic fibrosis,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 106–111, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. T. Jensen, S. S. Pedersen, C. H. Nielsen, N. Hoiby, and C. Koch, “The efficacy and safety of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin in chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 585–594, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. T. Jensen, S. S. Pedersen, N. Hoiby, and C. Koch, “Efficacy of oral fluoroquinolones versus conventional intravenous antipseudomonal chemotherapy in treatment of cystic fibrosis,” European Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 618–622, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. F. Carswell, C. Ward, D. A. Cook, and D. C. E. Speller, “A controlled trial of nebulized aminoglycoside and oral flucloxacillin versus placebo in the outpatient management of children with cystic fibrosis,” British Journal of Diseases of the Chest, vol. 81, no. 4, pp. 356–360, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. P. Latzin, M. Fehling, A. Bauernfeind, D. Reinhardt, M. Kappler, and M. Griese, “Efficacy and safety of intravenous meropenem and tobramycin versus ceftazidime and tobramycin in cystic fibrosis,” Journal of Cystic fibrosis, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 142–146, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. H. J. Lai, Y. Cheng, and P. M. Farrell, “The survival advantage of patients with cystic fibrosis diagnosed through neonatal screening: evidence from the United States cystic fibrosis Foundation Registry data,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 147, no. 3, pp. S57–S63, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. C. Goerke, K. Kraning, M. Stern, G. Döring, K. Botzenhart, and C. Wolz, “Molecular epidemiology of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus in families with and without cystic fibrosis patients,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 181, no. 3, pp. 984–989, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. J. G. Mainz, L. Naehrlich, M. Schien et al., “Concordant genotype of upper and lower airways P. aeruginosa and S. aureus isolates in cystic fibrosis,” Thorax, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 535–540, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. D. J. Wolter, J. C. Emerson, S. McNamara, A. M. Buccat, X. Qin, E. Cochrane et al., “Staphylococcus aureus small-colony variants are independently associated with worse lung disease in children with cystic fibrosis,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 384–391, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  77. S. Besier, C. Smaczny, C. Von Mallinckrodt et al., “Prevalence and clinical significance of Staphylococcus aureus small-colony variants in cystic fibrosis lung disease,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 168–172, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. M. Szaff and N. Hoiby, “Antibiotic treatment of Staphyloccus aureus infection in cystic fibrosis,” Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica, vol. 71, no. 5, pp. 821–826, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. T. Jensen, S. Lanng, M. Faber, V. T. Rosdahl, N. Hoiby, and C. Koch, “Clinical experiences with fusidic acid in cystic fibrosis patients,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 25, pp. 45–52, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. G. Doring and N. Hoiby, “Early intervention and prevention of lung disease in cystic fibrosis: a European consensus,” Journal of Cystic fibrosis, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 67–91, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  81. A. Smyth and S. Walters, “Prophylactic antibiotics for cystic fibrosis,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 3, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. P. A. Flume, B. P. O'Sullivan, K. A. Robinson et al., “Cystic fibrosis pulmonary guidelines: chronic medications for maintenance of lung health,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 176, no. 10, pp. 957–969, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. L. Máiz, R. Del Campo, M. Castro, D. Gutiérrez, R. Girón, and R. C. Moreno, “Maintenance treatment with inhaled ampicillin in patients with cystic fibrosis and lung infection due to methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus,” Archivos de Bronconeumología, vol. 48, no. 10, p. 384, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  84. C. H. Goss and M. S. Muhlebach, “Review: Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA in cystic fibrosis,” Journal of Cystic fibrosis, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 298–306, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. R. Cantón, N. Cobos, J. de Gracia et al., “Antimicrobial therapy for pulmonary pathogenic colonisation and infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 690–703, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. L. Máiz, R. M. Girón, C. Olveira et al., “Inhaled antibiotics for the treatment of chronic bronchopulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis: systematic review of randomised controlled trials,” Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 1135–1149, 2013. View at Google Scholar