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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2013, Article ID 717165, 12 pages
Research Article

A Blind Reversible Robust Watermarking Scheme for Relational Databases

1Department of Information Engineering and Computer Science, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan
2Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
3Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan
4Department of Information Technology, Travinh University, Travinh, Vietnam
5Department of Computer Science and Information Management, Providence University, No. 200 Chung-chi Road, Taichung 43301, Taiwan

Received 2 July 2013; Accepted 27 August 2013

Academic Editors: G. Jiang and J. Ma

Copyright © 2013 Chin-Chen Chang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Protecting the ownership and controlling the copies of digital data have become very important issues in Internet-based applications. Reversible watermark technology allows the distortion-free recovery of relational databases after the embedded watermark data are detected or verified. In this paper, we propose a new, blind, reversible, robust watermarking scheme that can be used to provide proof of ownership for the owner of a relational database. In the proposed scheme, a reversible data-embedding algorithm, which is referred to as “histogram shifting of adjacent pixel difference” (APD), is used to obtain reversibility. The proposed scheme can detect successfully 100% of the embedded watermark data, even if as much as 80% of the watermarked relational database is altered. Our extensive analysis and experimental results show that the proposed scheme is robust against a variety of data attacks, for example, alteration attacks, deletion attacks, mix-match attacks, and sorting attacks.