Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2013, Article ID 737620, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/737620
Research Article

Predictors of Delayed Entry into Medical Care of Children Diagnosed with HIV Infection: Data from an HIV Cohort Study in India

Department of Infectious Diseases, Bathalapalli Rural Development Trust Hospital, Kadiri Road, Bathalapalli, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh 515661, India

Received 7 August 2013; Accepted 26 September 2013

Academic Editors: L. Genitori, J. Merrick, and R. Thomas

Copyright © 2013 Gerardo Alvarez-Uria et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. National AIDS Control Organisation, Guidelines for HIV Care and Treatment in Infants and Children, 2006.
  2. R. Spira, P. Lepage, P. Msellati et al., “Natural history of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in children: a five-year prospective study in Rwanda. Mother-to-Child HIV-1 Transmission Study Group,” Pediatrics, vol. 104, no. 5, article e56, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M.-L. Newell, H. Coovadia, M. Cortina-Borja, N. Rollins, P. Gaillard, and F. Dabis, “Mortality of infected and uninfected infants born to HIV-infected mothers in Africa: a pooled analysis,” The Lancet, vol. 364, no. 9441, pp. 1236–1243, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. Edmonds, M. Yotebieng, J. Lusiama et al., “The effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the survival of HIV-infected children in a resource-deprived setting: a cohort study,” PLoS Medicine, vol. 8, no. 6, Article ID e1001044, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. G. Alvarez-Uria, “Factors associated with delayed entry into HIV medical care after HIV diagnosis in a resource-limited setting: data from a cohort study in India,” PeerJ, vol. 1, article e90, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  6. C. Mugglin, J. Estill, G. Wandeler, N. Bender, M. Egger, and T. Gsponer, “Loss to programme between HIV diagnosis and initiation of antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa: systematic review and meta-analysis,” Tropical Medicine & International Health, vol. 17, pp. 1509–1520, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  7. C. Mugglin, G. Wandeler, J. Estill et al., “Retention in care of HIV-infected children from HIV test to start of antiretroviral therapy: systematic review,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, Article ID e56446, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  8. National AIDS Control Organisation, “HIV estimates 2012,” Tech. Rep., India, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  9. Office of The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, Census of India, India, 2011.
  10. G. Alvarez-Uria, M. Midde, R. Pakam, and P. K. Naik, “Gender differences, routes of transmission, socio-demographic characteristics and prevalence of HIV related infections of adults and children in an HIV cohort from a rural district of India,” Infectious Disease Reports, vol. 4, article e19, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  11. G. Alvarez-Uria, R. Reddy, S. Reddy, P. K. Naik, and M. Midde, “Evaluation of a low-cost strategy for enumerating CD4 lymphocyte absolute count and percentage using the FACSCalibur flow cytometer in HIV-infected patients from a resource-limited setting,” ISRN Aids, vol. 2012, Article ID 494698, 4 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. G. Alvarez-Uria, M. Midde, R. Pakam, S. Kannan, L. Bachu, and P. K. Naik, “Factors associated with late presentation of HIV and estimation of antiretroviral treatment need according to CD4 lymphocyte count in a resource-limited setting: data from an HIV cohort study in India,” Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases, vol. 2012, Article ID 293795, 7 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. G. Alvarez-Uria, J. M. Azcona, S. Reddy, M. Midde, P. K. Naik, and N. R. Reddy, “Point of care testing of HIV in children younger than 18 months with three different HIV virological assays. Experience from a district hospital in a resource-limited setting,” Microbiology Research, vol. 1634, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  14. G. Alvarez-Uria, P. K. Naik, M. Midde, S. Kannan, and R. Reddy, “False negative HIV antibody test in HIV infected children who receive early antiretroviral treatment in a resource-limited setting,” Infectious Disease Reports, vol. 4, article e6, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  15. G. Alvarez-Uria, M. Midde, and P. K. Naik, “Socio-demographic risk factors associated with HIV infection in patients seeking medical advice in a rural hospital of India,” Journal of Public Health Research, vol. 1, article e14, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  16. B. H. Chi, C. T. Yiannoutsos, A. O. Westfall et al., “Universal definition of loss to follow-up in HIV treatment programs: a statistical analysis of 111 facilities in Africa, Asia, and Latin America,” PLoS Medicine, vol. 8, no. 10, Article ID e1001111, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. M. Ingle, M. May, K. Uebel et al., “Outcomes in patients waiting for antiretroviral treatment in the Free State Province, South Africa: prospective linkage study,” Aids, vol. 24, no. 17, pp. 2717–2725, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. E. H. Geng, M. B. Bwana, W. Muyindike et al., “Failure to initiate antiretroviral therapy, loss to follow-up and mortality among HIV-infected patients during the pre-ART period in Uganda,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  19. J. P. Fine and R. J. Gray, “A proportional hazards model for the subdistribution of a competing risk,” Journal of the American Statistical Association, vol. 94, no. 446, pp. 496–509, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. D. G. Kleinbaum and M. Klein, Survival Analysis, a Self-Learning Text, vol. 40, Springer, 2nd edition, 2005.
  21. V. Coviello and M. Boggess, “Cumulative incidence estimation in the presence of competing risks,” Stata Journal, vol. 4, pp. 103–112, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  22. M. A. Cleves, W. W. Gould, and R. G. Gutierrez, An Introduction to Survival Analysis Using Stata, Stata Corp, 2008.
  23. W. M. Nyandiko, A. Mwangi, S. O. Ayaya et al., “Characteristics of HIV-infected children seen in Western Kenya,” East African Medical Journal, vol. 86, no. 8, pp. 364–373, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M.-F. Anaky, J. Duvignac, L. Wemin et al., “Scaling up antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected children in Côte d’Ivoire: determinants of survival and loss to programme,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 88, no. 7, pp. 490–500, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. K. Leyenaar, P. M. Novosad, K. T. Ferrer et al., “Early clinical outcomes in children enrolled in human immunodeficiency virus infection care and treatment in lesotho,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 340–345, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. G. Sutcliffe, J. H. van Dijk, C. Bolton-Moore, M. Cotham, B. Tambatamba, and W. J. Moss, “Differences in presentation, treatment initiation, and response among children infected with human immunodeficiency virus in urban and rural Zambia,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 849–854, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. Wachira, S. E. Middlestadt, and R. Vreeman, “Factors underlying taking a child to HIV care: implications for reducing loss to follow-up among HIV-infected and -exposed children,” Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS, vol. 9, pp. 20–29, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  28. P. K. Dhillon, P. Jeemon, N. K. Arora, P. Mathur, M. Maskey, and R. D. Sukirna, “Status of epidemiology in the WHO South-East Asia region: burden of disease, determinants of health and epidemiological research, workforce and training capacity,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 41, pp. 847–860, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  29. U. Okomo, T. Togun, F. Oko, K. Peterson, and A. Jaye, “Mortality and loss to programme before antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected children eligible for treatment in The Gambia, West Africa,” AIDS Res Ther, vol. 9, article 28, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  30. M. Bandyopadhyay, “Missing girls and son preference in rural India: looking beyond popular myth,” Health Care for Women International, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 910–926, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. G. Alvarez-Uria, M. Midde, R. Pakam, L. Bachu, and P. K. Naik, “Effect of formula feeding and breastfeeding on child growth, infant mortality, and HIV transmission in children born to HIV-infected pregnant women who received triple antiretroviral therapy in a resource-limited setting: data from an HIV cohort study in India,” ISRN Pediatrics, vol. 2012, Article ID 763591, 9 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar