Table 1: Characteristics of subjects.


Male/female (n)43/2952/53
Age (y)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)
Waist circumference (cm)
Fasting glucose (mmol/L)
TC (mmol/L)
TG (mmol/L)
LDL-C (mmol/L)
HDL-C (mmol/L)
Dietary intake
Energy (Kcal/d)
Protein (g/d)
Percentage of total calories(13.6%)(16.0%)
Fat (g/d)
Percentage of total calories(33.4%)(28.6%)
Carbohydrate (g/d)
Percentage of total calories(53.0%)(55.8%)
Polyunsaturated fatty acid (g/d)
Percentage of total calories(12.1%)(10.0%)
Monounsaturated fatty acid (g/d)
Percentage of total calories(10.2%)(8.9%)
Saturated fatty acid (g/d)
Percentage of total calories(9.2%)(8.1%)
Vitamin E (mg α-T.E./d)
Vitamin E/fat (mg α-T.E./g)

Mean ± SD. *Values were significantly different between case and control groups.
HDL-C: high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; LDL-C: low density lipoprotein-cholesterol; TC: total cholesterol; TG: triglyceride.