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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2013, Article ID 782745, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/782745
Research Article

Accumulation of Scandium in Plasma in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure

1Department of Physiology, Campus Cartuja, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
2Department of Nephrology, Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, 18014 Granada, Spain
3Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Málaga, 29071 Málaga, Spain

Received 23 October 2013; Accepted 12 November 2013

Academic Editors: T. Gupta and C. Montoliu

Copyright © 2013 Cristina Sánchez-González et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Scandium (Sc) is an element with many industrial applications, but relatively little is known about its physiological and/or toxicological effects, and very little data are available concerning the role of Sc in chronic renal failure (CRF). This paper examines the changes in plasma levels of Sc in predialysis patients with CRF and the relationship with blood parameters. The participants in this trial were 48 patients with CRF in predialysis and 53 healthy controls. Erythrocyte, haemoglobin, and haematocrit counts in blood were determined, and levels of creatinine, urea, uric acid, albumin, total protein and Sc were measured in plasma. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault index. The CRF patients were found to have higher plasma levels of creatinine, urea, uric acid, albumin, total protein, and Sc and a lower GFR than that the controls. Scandium in plasma was positively correlated with creatinine and plasma urea and negatively correlated with GFR, haemoglobin, and haematocrit and was associated with the risk of lower levels of erythrocytes, haemoglobin, and haematocrit. CRF was associated with increases in the circulating levels of scandium.