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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2013, Article ID 871423, 11 pages
Research Article

Friction Forces during Sliding of Various Brackets for Malaligned Teeth: An In Vitro Study

1Department of Dental Sciences and Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Bari Aldo Moro, 70124 Bari, Italy
2Department of Dental, Orthodontic and Surgical Disciplines, Second University of Naples, 80138 Naples, Italy
3Department of Mechanics, Mathematics and Management (DMMM), Polytechnic University of Bari, Viale Japigia 182, 70126 Bari, Italy
4Società Cooperativa Sociale e Sanitaria ONLUS “Insieme con Padre Pio”, 74015 Martina Franca, Italy
5European Society for Experimental Mechanics (EuraSEM), Italy

Received 20 November 2012; Accepted 17 December 2012

Academic Editors: M. Rosentritt and I. Watanabe

Copyright © 2013 Vito Crincoli et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Aims. To measure the friction force generated during sliding mechanics with conventional, self-ligating (Damon 3 mx, Smart Clip, and Time 3) and low-friction (Synergy) brackets using different archwire diameters and ligating systems in the presence of apical and buccal malalignments of the canine. Methods. An experimental setup reproducing the right buccal segment of the maxillary arch was designed to measure the friction force generated at the bracket/wire and wire/ligature interfaces of different brackets. A complete factorial plan was drawn up and a three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out to investigate whether the following factors affect the values of friction force: (i) degree of malalignment, (ii) diameter of the orthodontic wire, and (iii) bracket/ligature combination. Tukey post hoc test was also conducted to evaluate any statistically significant differences between the bracket/ligature combinations analyzed. Results. ANOVA showed that all the above factors affect the friction force values. The friction force released during sliding mechanics with conventional brackets is about 5-6times higher than that released with the other investigated brackets. A quasilinear increase of the frictional forces was observed for increasing amounts of apical and buccal malalignments. Conclusion. The Synergy bracket with silicone ligature placed around the inner tie-wings appears to yield the best performance.