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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2013, Article ID 917082, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/917082
Research Article

The Protective Role of Carnosic Acid against Beta-Amyloid Toxicity in Rats

1Cellular & Molecular Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Hemmat Highway, Tehran, Iran
2Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Hemmat Highway, Tehran, Iran
3Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Pursina Avenue, Tehran, Iran
4Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Hemmat Highway, Tehran, Iran

Received 11 August 2013; Accepted 5 September 2013

Academic Editors: P. Fabio, P. Schwenkreis, and Ü. Tan

Copyright © 2013 H. Rasoolijazi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Oxidative stress is one of the pathological mechanisms responsible for the beta- amyloid cascade associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Previous studies have demonstrated the role of carnosic acid (CA), an effective antioxidant, in combating oxidative stress. A progressive cognitive decline is one of the hallmarks of AD. Thus, we attempted to determine whether the administration of CA protects against memory deficit caused by beta-amyloid toxicity in rats. Beta-amyloid (1–40) was injected by stereotaxic surgery into the Ca1 region of the hippocampus of rats in the Amyloid beta (Aβ) groups. CA was delivered intraperitoneally, before and after surgery in animals in the CA groups. Passive avoidance learning and spontaneous alternation behavior were evaluated using the shuttle box and the Y-maze, respectively. The degenerating hippocampal neurons were detected by fluoro-jade b staining. We observed that beta-amyloid (1–40) can induce neurodegeneration in the Ca1 region of the hippocampus by using fluoro-jade b staining. Also, the behavioral tests revealed that CA may recover the passive avoidance learning and spontaneous alternation behavior scores in the Aβ + CA group, in comparison with the Aβ group. We found that CA may ameliorate the spatial and learning memory deficits induced by the toxicity of beta-amyloid in the rat hippocampus.