Andrographolide Inhibits Nuclear Factor-B Activation through JNK-Akt-p65 Signaling Cascade in Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-Stimulated Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells
Effects of andrographolide on p38MAPK, ERK1/2, JNK, and Akt signaling pathways in TNF--stimulated VSMCs. The VSMCs were treated with PBS (resting group) or pretreated with andrographolide (20 and 50 μM) or an equal volume of DMSO (solvent control) for 20 min, and TNF- (10 ng/mL) was subsequently added for 10 min. (a) p38MAPK phosphorylation, (b) ERK1/2 phosphorylation, (c) JNK phosphorylation, and (d) Akt phosphorylation were evaluated as described in Section 2. and compared with the resting group; and compared with the TNF- group. The data are presented as the mean ± SEM ().