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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 150615, 7 pages
Research Article

Adaptation of Mycoplasmas to Antimicrobial Agents: Acholeplasma laidlawii Extracellular Vesicles Mediate the Export of Ciprofloxacin and a Mutant Gene Related to the Antibiotic Target

1Kazan Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Kazan Scientific Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences, Kazan 420111, Russia
2Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008, Russia

Received 17 November 2013; Accepted 18 December 2013; Published 29 January 2014

Academic Editors: A. El-Shibiny and D. Zhou

Copyright © 2014 Elena S. Medvedeva et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study demonstrated that extracellular membrane vesicles are involved with the development of resistance to fluoroquinolones by mycoplasmas (class Mollicutes). This study assessed the differences in susceptibility to ciprofloxacin among strains of Acholeplasma laidlawii PG8. The mechanisms of mycoplasma resistance to antibiotics may be associated with a mutation in a gene related to the target of quinolones, which could modulate the vesiculation level. A. laidlawii extracellular vesicles mediated the export of the nucleotide sequences of the antibiotic target gene as well as the traffic of ciprofloxacin. These results may facilitate the development of effective approaches to control mycoplasma infections, as well as the contamination of cell cultures and vaccine preparations.