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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 159150, 8 pages
Review Article

Sex Hormones and Immune Dimorphism

Immunology and Immunotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab 147002, India

Received 19 July 2014; Revised 16 September 2014; Accepted 17 September 2014; Published 17 November 2014

Academic Editor: Emil Toma

Copyright © 2014 Aruna Bhatia et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The functioning of the immune system of the body is regulated by many factors. The abnormal regulation of the immune system may result in some pathological conditions. Sex hormones of reproductive system are one of the major factors that regulate immune system due to the presence of hormone receptors on immune cells. The interaction of sex hormones and immune cells through the receptors on these cells effect the release of cytokines which determines the proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of different types of immunocytes and as a result the outcome of inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. The different regulations of sex hormones in both sexes result in immune dimorphism. In this review article the mechanism of regulation of immune system in different sexes and its impact are discussed.