Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 173979, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/173979
Research Article

The Use of D-Optimal Mixture Design in Optimising Okara Soap Formulation for Stratum Corneum Application

1Halal Product Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Putra Infoport, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2Centre of Foundation Studies for Agricultural Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
3Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
4Department of Process and Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Received 13 August 2014; Revised 17 November 2014; Accepted 18 November 2014; Published 8 December 2014

Academic Editor: Luciano De Sio

Copyright © 2014 Farrah Payyadhah Borhan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Singh, A. Kuila, G. Yadav, and R. Banerjee, “Process optimization for the extraction of polyphenols from okara,” Food Technology and Biotechnology, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 322–328, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. F. Stallings and M. P. Lupo, “Practical uses of botanicals in skin care,” Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 36–40, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. E.-H. Kim, H.-M. Ro, S.-L. Kim, H.-S. Kim, and I.-M. Chung, “Analysis of isoflavone, phenolic, soyasapogenol, and tocopherol compounds in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] germplasms of different seed weights and origins,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 60, no. 23, pp. 6045–6055, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. Liu, S. K. C. Chang, and D. Wiesenborn, “Antioxidant properties of soybean isoflavone extract and tofu in vitro and in vivo,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 2333–2340, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. Levin, J. Q. del Rosso, and S. B. Momin, “How much do we really know about our favorite cosmeceutical ingredients?” Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 22–41, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. Puglia and F. Bonina, “In vivo spectrophotometric evaluation of skin barrier recovery after topical application of soybean phytosterols,” Journal of Cosmetic Science, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 217–224, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. Friedman and R. Wolf, “Chemistry of soaps and detergents: various types of commercial products and their ingredients,” Clinics in Dermatology, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 7–13, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. M. Elias, “Stratum corneum defensive functions: an integrated view,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 125, no. 2, pp. 183–200, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. S. Abd Gani, M. Basri, M. B. Abdul Rahman et al., “Engkabang fat esters for cosmeceutical formulation,” Journal of Surfactants and Detergents, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 227–233, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  10. A. Kuntom, I. Ahmad, H. Kifli, and Z. M. Shariff, “Effects of superfatting agents on cracking phenomena in toilet soap,” Journal of Surfactants and Detergents, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 325–329, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. Djuris, D. Vasiljevic, S. Jokic, and S. Ibric, “Application of D-optimal experimental design method to optimize the formulation of O/W cosmetic emulsions,” International Journal of Cosmetic Science, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 79–87, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. N. Abdullah and N. L. Chin, “Simplex-centroid mixture formulation for optimised composting of kitchen waste,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 101, no. 21, pp. 8205–8210, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. K. Muteki, J. F. MacGregor, and T. Ueda, “Mixture designs and models for the simultaneous selection of ingredients and their ratios,” Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 17–25, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. Lai, C. Xin, Y. Zhao et al., “Optimization of ultrasonic assisted extraction of antioxidants from black soybean (Glycine max var) sprouts using response surface methodology,” Molecules, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 1101–1110, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. V. Nikzade, M. M. Tehrani, and M. Saadatmand-Tarzjan, “Optimization of low-cholesterol-low-fat mayonnaise formulation: effect of using soy milk and some stabilizer by a mixture design approach,” Food Hydrocolloids, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 344–352, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. R. Shaviklo and F. Rafipour, “Consumer-based development and optimization of fish strudel using D-optimal mixture design,” Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 845–855, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. L. Eriksson, E. Johansson, and C. Wikström, “Mixture design—design generation, PLS analysis, and model usage,” Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, vol. 43, no. 1-2, pp. 1–24, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. K. Firempong, “Chemical characteristics of toilet soap prepared from neem (Azadirachta indica A . Juss) seed oil,” Asian Journal of Plant Science & Research, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 1–7, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  19. S. Zainol, M. Basri, H. B. Basri et al., “Formulation optimization of a palm-based nanoemulsion system containing levodopa,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 13049–13064, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. DebMandal and S. Mandal, “Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.: Arecaceae): in health promotion and disease prevention,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 241–247, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. Salimon, D. A. Mohd Noor, A. T. Nazrizawati, M. Y. Mohd Firdaus, and A. Noraishah, “Fatty acid composition and physicochemical properties of Malaysian castor bean Ricinus communis L. seed oil,” Sains Malaysiana, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 761–764, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. H. Musa, M. Basri, H. R. F. Masoumi et al., “Formulation optimization of palm kernel oil esters nanoemulsion-loaded with chloramphenicol suitable for meningitis treatment,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 112, pp. 113–119, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. P.-J. Tsai, C.-T. Huang, C.-C. Lee et al., “Isotretinoin oil-based capsule formulation optimization,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2013, Article ID 856967, 6 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. Kamoun, M. Chaabouni, M. Sergent, and R. Phan-Tan-Luu, “Mixture design applied to the formulation of hydrotropes for liquid detergents,” Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 69–79, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. P. Wu, P. Tsai, S. Lin, and Y. Huang, “Formulation optimization of arecoline patches,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2014, Article ID 945168, 7 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. A. Y. Girgis, “Production of high quality castile soap from high rancid olive oil,” Grasas y Aceites, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 226–233, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  27. Y. H. Hui, Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products, A Wiley Interscience Publication, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1996.
  28. A. M. Marina, Y. B. Che Man, S. A. H. Nazimah, and I. Amin, “Chemical properties of virgin coconut oil,” JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 301–307, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. Kuntom and H. Kifli, “Properties of soaps derived from distilled palm stearin and palm kernel fatty acids,” Journal of Surfactants and Detergents, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 329–334, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. E. Ginn, R. C. Steinhauer, I. Liebman, and E. Jungermann, “Effect of tallow-coconut fatty acid ratios on properties of bar soaps,” Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 666–669, 1968. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus