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Retracted

The Scientific World Journal has retracted this article. The article was found to contain a substantial amount of material from the following published articles and others:(i)Krzysztof Ziemiński and Magdalena Frąc, Methane fermentation process as anaerobic digestion of biomass: Transformations, stages and microorganisms, African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 11, No. 18. (March 2012), pp. 4127–4139, doi: 10.5897/AJBX11.054 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajb/article/view/101067(ii)José L. Sanz, Thorsten Köchling, Molecular biology techniques used in wastewater treatment: An overview, Process Biochemistry, Volume 42, Issue 2, February 2007, Pages 119–133, ISSN 1359-5113, https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2006.10.003. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359511306003989)(iii)Jo De Vrieze, Tom Hennebel, Nico Boon, Willy Verstraete, Methanosarcina: The rediscovered methanogen for heavy duty biomethanation, Bioresource Technology, Volume 112, May 2012, Pages 1–9, ISSN 0960-8524, https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.02.079. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960852412003306)(iv)Paul J. Weimer, James B. Russell, Richard E. Muck, Lessons from the cow: What the ruminant animal can teach us about consolidated bioprocessing of cellulosic biomass, Bioresource Technology, Volume 100, Issue 21, November 2009, Pages 5323–5331, ISSN 0960-8524, https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2009.04.075. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960852409006476)(v)Azam Jeihanipour, Claes Niklasson, Mohammad J. Taherzadeh, Enhancement of solubilization rate of cellulose in anaerobic digestion and its drawbacks, Process Biochemistry, Volume 46, Issue 7, July 2011, Pages 1509–1514, ISSN 1359-5113, https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2011.04.003. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359511311001334), without citation.

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References

  1. F. Ali Shah, Q. Mahmood, M. M. Shah, A. Pervez, and S. A. Asad, “Microbial ecology of anaerobic digesters: the key players of anaerobiosis,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2014, Article ID 183752, 21 pages, 2014.
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 183752, 21 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/183752
Review Article

Microbial Ecology of Anaerobic Digesters: The Key Players of Anaerobiosis

Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad 22060, Pakistan

Received 4 August 2013; Accepted 10 December 2013; Published 19 February 2014

Academic Editors: C. Cameselle and G. Sen

Copyright © 2014 Fayyaz Ali Shah et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Anaerobic digestion is the method of wastes treatment aimed at a reduction of their hazardous effects on the biosphere. The mutualistic behavior of various anaerobic microorganisms results in the decomposition of complex organic substances into simple, chemically stabilized compounds, mainly methane and . The conversions of complex organic compounds to and are possible due to the cooperation of four different groups of microorganisms, that is, fermentative, syntrophic, acetogenic, and methanogenic bacteria. Microbes adopt various pathways to evade from the unfavorable conditions in the anaerobic digester like competition between sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and methane forming bacteria for the same substrate. Methanosarcina are able to use both acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic pathways for methane production. This review highlights the cellulosic microorganisms, structure of cellulose, inoculum to substrate ratio, and source of inoculum and its effect on methanogenesis. The molecular techniques such as DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) utilized for dynamic changes in microbial communities and FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) that deal with taxonomy and interaction and distribution of tropic groups used are also discussed.