Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Retracted

The Scientific World Journal has retracted this article. The article was found to contain a substantial amount of material from the following published articles and others:(i)Krzysztof Ziemiński and Magdalena Frąc, Methane fermentation process as anaerobic digestion of biomass: Transformations, stages and microorganisms, African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 11, No. 18. (March 2012), pp. 4127–4139, doi: 10.5897/AJBX11.054 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajb/article/view/101067(ii)José L. Sanz, Thorsten Köchling, Molecular biology techniques used in wastewater treatment: An overview, Process Biochemistry, Volume 42, Issue 2, February 2007, Pages 119–133, ISSN 1359-5113, https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2006.10.003. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359511306003989)(iii)Jo De Vrieze, Tom Hennebel, Nico Boon, Willy Verstraete, Methanosarcina: The rediscovered methanogen for heavy duty biomethanation, Bioresource Technology, Volume 112, May 2012, Pages 1–9, ISSN 0960-8524, https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.02.079. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960852412003306)(iv)Paul J. Weimer, James B. Russell, Richard E. Muck, Lessons from the cow: What the ruminant animal can teach us about consolidated bioprocessing of cellulosic biomass, Bioresource Technology, Volume 100, Issue 21, November 2009, Pages 5323–5331, ISSN 0960-8524, https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2009.04.075. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960852409006476)(v)Azam Jeihanipour, Claes Niklasson, Mohammad J. Taherzadeh, Enhancement of solubilization rate of cellulose in anaerobic digestion and its drawbacks, Process Biochemistry, Volume 46, Issue 7, July 2011, Pages 1509–1514, ISSN 1359-5113, https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2011.04.003. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359511311001334), without citation.

View the full Retraction here.

References

  1. F. Ali Shah, Q. Mahmood, M. M. Shah, A. Pervez, and S. A. Asad, “Microbial ecology of anaerobic digesters: the key players of anaerobiosis,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2014, Article ID 183752, 21 pages, 2014.
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 183752, 21 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/183752
Review Article

Microbial Ecology of Anaerobic Digesters: The Key Players of Anaerobiosis

Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad 22060, Pakistan

Received 4 August 2013; Accepted 10 December 2013; Published 19 February 2014

Academic Editors: C. Cameselle and G. Sen

Copyright © 2014 Fayyaz Ali Shah et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. N. Naik, V. V. Goud, P. K. Rout, and A. K. Dalai, “Production of first and second generation biofuels: a comprehensive review,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 578–597, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. G. Lyberatos and I. Skiadas, “Modelling of anaerobic digestion: a review,” GlobalNEST International Journal, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 63–76, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  3. D. R. Boone, D. P. Chynoweth, R. A. Mah, P. H. Smith, and A. C. Wilkie, “Ecology and microbiology of biogasification,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 5, no. 3-4, pp. 191–202, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. Mata-Alvarez, S. Macé, and P. Llabrés, “Anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes. An overview of research achievements and perspectives,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 3–16, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. D. de Graaf and R. Fendler, “Biogas production in Germany,” SPIN Background Paper, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  6. P. Weiland, “Biogas production: current state and perspectives,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 85, no. 4, pp. 849–860, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. K. Ziemiński and M. Frąc, “Methane fermentation process as anaerobic digestion of biomass: transformations, stages and microorganisms,” African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 11, no. 18, pp. 4127–4139, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. A. M. Claassen, A. M. Lopez Contreras, L. Sijtsma et al., “Utilisation of biomass for the supply of energy carriers,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 741–755, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. F. A. M. de Bok, H. J. M. Harmsen, C. M. Plugge et al., “The first true obligately syntrophic propionate-oxidizing bacterium, Pelotomaculum schinkii sp. nov., co-cultured with Methanospirillum hungatei, and emended description of the genus Pelotomaculum,” International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 1697–1703, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. I. M. Arbon, “Worldwide use of biomass in power generation and combined heat and power schemes,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers A, vol. 216, no. 1, pp. 41–58, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. B. Demirel and P. Scherer, “The roles of acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens during anaerobic conversion of biomass to methane: a review,” Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 173–190, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. K. H. Nealson, “Sediment bacteria: who's there, what are they doing, and what's new?” Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, vol. 25, pp. 403–434, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. Conrad, “Contribution of hydrogen to methane production and control of hydrogen concentrations in methanogenic soils and sediments,” FEMS Microbiology Ecology, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 193–202, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. W. Parawira, J. S. Read, B. Mattiasson, and L. Björnsson, “Energy production from agricultural residues: high methane yields in pilot-scale two-stage anaerobic digestion,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 44–50, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. Bryant, “Microbial methane production: theoretical aspects,” Journal of Animal Science, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 193–201, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  16. P. Smith, “The microbial ecology of sludge methanogenesis,” Developments in Industrial Microbiology, vol. 7, pp. 156–161, 1966. View at Google Scholar
  17. I. Ntaikou, G. Antonopoulou, and G. Lyberatos, “Biohydrogen production from biomass and wastes via dark fermentation: a review,” Waste and Biomass Valorization, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 21–39, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. B. Schink, “Energetics of syntrophic cooperation in methanogenic degradation,” Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 262–280, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. W. Verstraete, F. Doulami, E. Volcke, M. Tavernier, H. Nollet, and J. Roles, “The importance of anaerobic digestion for global environmental development,” in Proceedings of the JSCE Annual Meeting, pp. 97–102, 2002.
  20. M. E. Griffin, K. D. McMahon, R. I. Mackie, and L. Raskin, “Methanogenic population dynamics during start-up of anaerobic digesters treating municipal solid waste and biosolids,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 342–355, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  21. D. Karakashev, D. J. Batstone, and I. Angelidaki, “Influence of environmental conditions on methanogenic compositions in anaerobic biogas reactors,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 331–338, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. K. D. McMahon, D. Zheng, A. J. M. Stams, R. I. Mackie, and L. Raskin, “Microbial population dynamics during start-up and overload conditions of anaerobic digesters treating municipal solid waste and sewage sludge,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 87, no. 7, pp. 823–834, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. F. Raposo, V. Fernández-Cegrí, M. De la Rubia et al., “Biochemical methane potential (BMP) of solid organic substrates: evaluation of anaerobic biodegradability using data from an international interlaboratory study,” Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, vol. 86, no. 8, pp. 1088–1098, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  24. F. Xu, J. Shi, W. Lv, Z. Yu, and Y. Li, “Comparison of different liquid anaerobic digestion effluents as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover,” Waste Managementment, vol. 33, pp. 26–32, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  25. I. Angelidaki, M. Alves, D. Bolzonella et al., “Defining the biomethane potential (BMP) of solid organic wastes and energy crops: a proposed protocol for batch assays,” Water Science and Technology, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 927–934, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. P. D. Jensen, M. T. Hardin, and W. P. Clarke, “Effect of biomass concentration and inoculum source on the rate of anaerobic cellulose solubilization,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 100, no. 21, pp. 5219–5225, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. C. Eskicioglu and M. Ghorbani, “Effect of inoculum/substrate ratio on mesophilic anaerobic digestion of bioethanol plant whole stillage in batch mode,” Process Biochemistry, vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 1682–1687, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. F. Xu, J. Shi, W. Lv, Z. Yu, and Y. Li, “Comparison of different liquid anaerobic digestion effluents as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid state anaerobic digestion of corn stover,” Waste Management, vol. 33, pp. 26–32, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  29. G. Esposito, L. Frunzo, F. Liotta, A. Panico, and F. Pirozzi, “Biomethane potential tests to measure the biogas production from the digestion and co-digestion of complex organic substrates,” Open Environmental Engineering Journal, vol. 5, pp. 1–8, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  30. C. González-Fernández and P. A. García-Encina, “Impact of substrate to inoculum ratio in anaerobic digestion of swine slurry,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 1065–1069, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  31. F. Di Maria, A. Sordi, and C. Micale, “Optimization of solid state anaerobic digestion by inoculum recirculation: the case of an existing mechanical biological treatment plant,” Applied Energy, vol. 97, pp. 462–469, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. F. Lü, L. Hao, M. Zhu, L. Shao, and P. He, “Initiating methanogenesis of vegetable waste at low inoculum-to-substrate ratio: importance of spatial separation,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 105, pp. 169–173, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. Suwannoppadol, G. Ho, and R. Cord-Ruwisch, “Rapid start-up of thermophilic anaerobic digestion with the turf fraction of MSW as inoculum,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 102, no. 17, pp. 7762–7767, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. G. Zeikus, “The biology of methanogenic bacteria,” Bacteriological Reviews, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 514–541, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. Y. Yang, Z. Zhang, J. Lu, and T. Maekawa, “Continuous methane fermentation and the production of vitamin B 12 in a fixed-bed reactor packed with loofah,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 92, no. 3, pp. 285–290, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. P. M. Vignais, B. Billoud, and J. Meyer, “Classification and phylogeny of hydrogenases,” FEMS Microbiology Reviews, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 455–501, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. T. Watanabe, S. Asakawa, A. Nakamura, K. Nagaoka, and M. Kimura, “DGGE method for analyzing 16S rDNA of methanogenic archaeal community in paddy field soil,” FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol. 232, no. 2, pp. 153–163, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. B. K. Ahring, A. A. Ibrahim, and Z. Mladenovska, “Effect of temperature increase from 55 to 65°C on performance and microbial population dynamics of an anaerobic reactor treating cattle manure,” Water Research, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 2446–2452, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. H. Bouallagui, M. Torrijos, J. J. Godon et al., “Microbial monitoring by molecular tools of a two-phase anaerobic bioreactor treating fruit and vegetable wastes,” Biotechnology Letters, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 857–862, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. V. K. Ilyin, I. N. Korniushenkova, L. V. Starkova, and K. S. Lauriniavichius, “Study of methanogenesis during bioutilization of plant residuals,” Acta Astronautica, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 465–470, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. H. Gerardi, The Microbiology of Anaerobic Digesters, Wiley-Interscience, 2003.
  42. J. De Vrieze, T. Hennebel, N. Boon, and W. Verstraete, “Methanosarcina: the rediscovered methanogen for heavy duty biomethanation,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 112, pp. 1–9, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. Schnürer, B. Schink, and B. H. Svensson, “Clostridium ultunense sp. nov., a mesophilic bacterium oxidizing acetate in syntrophic association with a hydrogenotrophic methanogenic bacterium,” International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 1145–1152, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. Goberna, M. Gadermaier, C. García, B. Wett, and H. Insam, “Adaptation of methanogenic communities to the cofermentation of cattle excreta and olive mill wastes at 37°C and 55°C,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 76, no. 19, pp. 6564–6571, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. P. J. Weimer, J. B. Russell, and R. E. Muck, “Lessons from the cow: what the ruminant animal can teach us about consolidated bioprocessing of cellulosic biomass,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 100, no. 21, pp. 5323–5331, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. Khanal, Anaerobic Biotechnology for Bioenergy Production: Principles and Applications, Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.
  47. Y. Chen, J. J. Cheng, and K. S. Creamer, “Inhibition of anaerobic digestion process: a review,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 99, no. 10, pp. 4044–4064, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J. Ma, L. J. Mungoni, W. Verstraete, and M. Carballa, “Maximum removal rate of propionic acid as a sole carbon source in UASB reactors and the importance of the macro- and micro-nutrients stimulation,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 100, no. 14, pp. 3477–3482, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. K. C. Wijekoon, C. Visvanathan, and A. Abeynayaka, “Effect of organic loading rate on VFA production, organic matter removal and microbial activity of a two-stage thermophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 102, no. 9, pp. 5353–5360, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. W. Gujer and A. J. B. Zehnder, “Conversion processes in anaerobic digestion,” Water Science and Technology, vol. 15, no. 8-9, pp. 127–167, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. L. Appels, J. Baeyens, J. Degrève, and R. Dewil, “Principles and potential of the anaerobic digestion of waste-activated sludge,” Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 755–781, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. A. Conklin, H. D. Stensel, and J. Ferguson, “Growth kinetics and competition between methanosarcina and Methanosaeta in Mesophilic anaerobic digestion,” Water Environment Research, vol. 78, no. 5, pp. 486–496, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, X. Quan, J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and S. Chen, “Effects of an electric field and zero valent iron on anaerobic treatment of azo dye wastewater and microbial community structures,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 102, no. 3, pp. 2578–2584, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. S. G. Shin, B. W. Zhou, S. Lee, W. Kim, and S. Hwang, “Variations in methanogenic population structure under overloading of pre-acidified high-strength organic wastewaters,” Process Biochemistry, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 1035–1038, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. R. K. Thauer, A.-K. Kaster, H. Seedorf, W. Buckel, and R. Hedderich, “Methanogenic archaea: ecologically relevant differences in energy conservation,” Nature Reviews Microbiology, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 579–591, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. B. Calli, B. Mertoglu, B. Inanc, and O. Yenigun, “Community changes during star-up in methanogenic bioreactors exposed to increasing levels of ammonia,” Environmental Technology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 85–91, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. A. Schnürer and Å. Nordberg, “Ammonia, a selective agent for methane production by syntrophic acetate oxidation at mesophilic temperature,” Water Science and Technology, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 735–740, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. X. Qu, V. A. Vavilin, L. Mazéas et al., “Anaerobic biodegradation of cellulosic material: batch experiments and modelling based on isotopic data and focusing on aceticlastic and non-aceticlastic methanogenesis,” Waste Management, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1828–1837, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. Y. Yu, J. Kim, and S. Hwang, “Use of real-time PCR for group-specific quantification of aceticlastic methanogens in anaerobic processes: population dynamics and community structures,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 93, no. 3, pp. 424–433, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. A. Briones and L. Raskin, “Diversity and dynamics of microbial communities in engineered environments and their implications for process stability,” Current Opinion in Biotechnology, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 270–276, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. E. Nettmann, I. Bergmann, S. Pramschüfer et al., “Polyphasic analyses of methanogenic archaeal communities in agricultural biogas plants,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 76, no. 8, pp. 2540–2548, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. J. G. Ferry, “Enzymology of one-carbon metabolism in methanogenic pathways,” FEMS Microbiology Reviews, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 13–38, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. J. Shi, Z. Wang, J. A. Stiverson, Z. Yu, and Y. Li, “Reactor performance and microbial community dynamics during solid-state anaerobic digestion of Corn stover at mesophilic and thermophilic conditions,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 136, pp. 574–581, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  64. Y. Liu, D. R. Boone, R. Sleat, and R. A. Mah, “Methanosarcina mazei LYC, a new methanogenic isolate which produces a disaggregating enzyme,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 608–613, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. R. Spanheimer and V. Müller, “The molecular basis of salt adaptation in Methanosarcina mazei Gö1,” Archives of Microbiology, vol. 190, no. 3, pp. 271–279, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. B. F. Staley, F. L. de los Reyes III, and M. A. Barlaz, “Effect of spatial differences in microbial activity, pH, and substrate levels on methanogenesis initiation in refuse,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 77, no. 7, pp. 2381–2391, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. S. Hattori, “Syntrophic acetate-oxidizing microbes in methanogenic environments,” Microbes and Environments, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 118–127, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. T. Shigematsu, Y. Tang, H. Kawaguchi et al., “Effect of dilution rate on structure of a mesophilic acetate-degrading methanogenic community during continuous cultivation,” Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, vol. 96, no. 6, pp. 547–558, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. M. Westerholm, S. Roos, and A. Schnürer, “Syntrophaceticus schinkiigen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic, syntrophic acetate-oxidizing bacterium isolated from a mesophilic anaerobic filter,” FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol. 309, no. 1, pp. 100–104, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. D. Sasaki, T. Hori, S. Haruta, Y. Ueno, M. Ishii, and Y. Igarashi, “Methanogenic pathway and community structure in a thermophilic anaerobic digestion process of organic solid waste,” Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, vol. 111, no. 1, pp. 41–46, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. L.-P. Hao, F. Lü, P.-J. He, L. Li, and L.-M. Shao, “Predominant contribution of syntrophic acetate oxidation to thermophilic methane formation at high acetate concentrations,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 508–513, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. D. R. Lovley, “Reach out and touch someone: potential impact of DIET (direct interspecies energy transfer) on anaerobic biogeochemistry, bioremediation, and bioenergy,” Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 101–105, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. M. Morita, N. S. Malvankar, A. E. Franks et al., “Potential for direct interspecies electron transfer in methanogenic wastewater digester aggregates,” mBio, vol. 2, no. 4, Article ID e00159-11, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. D. R. Francoleon, P. Boontheung, Y. Yang et al., “S-layer, surface-accessible, and concanavalin a binding proteins of Methanosarcina acetivorans and methanosarcina mazei,” Journal of Proteome Research, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 1972–1982, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. A. Bhadra, J. M. Scharer, and M. Moo-Young, “Anaerobic digestion of native cellulosic wastes,” MIRCEN Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 349–358, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. Y.-H. P. Zhang and L. R. Lynd, “Cellulose utilization by Clostridium thermocellum: bioenergetics and hydrolysis product assimilation,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 102, no. 20, pp. 7321–7325, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. T. Noike, G. Endo, and J.-E. Chang, “Characteristics of carbohydrate degradation and the rate-limiting step in anaerobic digestion,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 1482–1489, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. L. R. Lynd, P. J. Weimer, W. H. Van Zyl, and I. S. Pretorius, “Microbial cellulose utilization: fundamentals and biotechnology,” Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 506–577, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. A. P. Sinitsyn, A. V. Gusakov, and E. Y. Vlasenko, “Effect of structural and physico-chemical features of cellulosic substrates on the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 43–59, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. H. Song, W. P. Clarke, and L. L. Blackall, “Concurrent microscopic observations and activity measurements of cellulose hydrolyzing and methanogenic populations during the batch anaerobic digestion of crystalline cellulose,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 369–378, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. P. J. Weimer, J. M. Lopez-Guisa, and A. D. French, “Effect of cellulose fine structure on kinetics of its digestion by mixed ruminal microorganisms in vitro,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 56, no. 8, pp. 2421–2429, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. Y. Lu, Y.-H. P. Zhang, and L. R. Lynd, “Enzyme-microbe synergy during cellulose hydrolysis by Clostridium thermocellum,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 103, no. 44, pp. 16165–16169, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. W. H. Schwarz, “The cellulosome and cellulose degradation by anaerobic bacteria,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 56, no. 5-6, pp. 634–649, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. C. A. O'Sullivan, P. C. Burrell, W. P. Clarke, and L. L. Blackall, “Comparison of cellulose solubilisation rates in rumen and landfill leachate inoculated reactors,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 97, no. 18, pp. 2356–2363, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. K. Golkowska and M. Greger, “Thermophilic digestion of cellulose at high-organic loading rates,” Engineering in Life Sciences, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 600–606, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. R. E. Hungate, Rumen and Its Microbes, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1966.
  87. S.-Y. Ding, M. T. Rincon, R. Lamed et al., “Cellulosomal scaffoldin-like proteins from Ruminococcus flavefaciens,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 183, no. 6, pp. 1945–1953, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. M. Qi, K. E. Nelson, S. C. Daugherty et al., “Novel molecular features of the fibrolytic intestinal bacterium Fibrobacter intestinalis not shared with Fibrobacter succinogenes as determined by suppressive subtractive hybridization,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 187, no. 11, pp. 3739–3751, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. P. J. van Soest, Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant, Comstock Publisher Association, 1994.
  90. A. Stephen, “Other plant polysaccharides,” The Polysaccharides, vol. 2, article 97, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  91. K. Mengel and E. A. Kirkby, Principles of Plant Nutrition, Springer, 2001.
  92. R. I. Mackie, “Mutualistic fermentative digestion in the gastrointestinal tract: diversity and evolution,” Integrative and Comparative Biology, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 319–326, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. E. Annison, M. I. Chalmers, S. Marshall, and R. Synge, “Ruminal ammonia formation in relation to the protein requirement of sheep: III. Ruminal ammonia formation with various diets,” Journal of Agricultural Science, vol. 44, no. 03, pp. 270–273, 1954. View at Google Scholar
  94. K. El-Shazly, “Degradation of protein in the rumen of the sheep. I. Some volatile fatty acids, including branched-chain isomers, found in vivo,” The Biochemical journal, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 640–647, 1952. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. M. A. Cotta, “Utilization of nucleic acids by Selenomonas ruminantium and other ruminal bacteria,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 56, no. 12, pp. 3867–3870, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. R. I. Mackie, B. A. White, and M. P. Bryant, “Lipid metabolism in anaerobic ecosystems,” Critical Reviews in Microbiology, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 449–479, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. J. Pérez, J. Muñoz-Dorado, T. de La Rubia, and J. Martínez, “Biodegradation and biological treatments of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin: an overview,” International Microbiology, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 53–63, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. C. Sánchez, “Lignocellulosic residues: biodegradation and bioconversion by fungi,” Biotechnology Advances, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 185–194, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. G. Cplj, G. Daigger, and H. Lim, Biological Wastewater Treatment, Marcel Dekker, 1999.
  100. B. Malik, M. Bo, and S. Bo, Evaluation of Process Parameters and Treatments of Different Raw Materials for Biogas Production, Lund University, 2012.
  101. L. Li, X. Yang, X. Li, M. Zheng, J. Chen, and Z. Zhang, “The influence of inoculum sources on anaerobic biogasification of NaOH-treated corn stover,” Energy Sources A, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 138–144, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. L. Neves, R. Oliveira, and M. M. Alves, “Influence of inoculum activity on the bio-methanization of a kitchen waste under different waste/inoculum ratios,” Process Biochemistry, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 2019–2024, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. W. S. Lopes, V. D. Leite, and S. Prasad, “Influence of inoculum on performance of anaerobic reactors for treating municipal solid waste,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 94, no. 3, pp. 261–266, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. C. Sans, J. Mata-Alvarez, F. Cecchi, P. Pavan, and A. Bassetti, “Acidogenic fermentation of organic urban wastes in a plug-flow reactor under thermophilic conditions,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 105–110, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. D. Obaja, S. Macé, J. Costa, C. Sans, and J. Mata-Alvarez, “Nitrification, denitrification and biological phosphorus removal in piggery wastewater using a sequencing batch reactor,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 103–111, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. T. Forster-Carneiro, M. Pérez, L. I. Romero, and D. Sales, “Dry-thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of the municipal solid waste: focusing on the inoculum sources,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 98, no. 17, pp. 3195–3203, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. P. K. Pandey, P. M. Ndegwa, M. L. Soupir, J. R. Alldredge, and M. J. Pitts, “Efficacies of inocula on the startup of anaerobic reactors treating dairy manure under stirred and unstirred conditions,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 2705–2720, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. A. Nopharatana, W. P. Clarke, P. C. Pullammanappallil, P. Silvey, and D. P. Chynoweth, “Evaluation of methanogenic activities during anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 169–174, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. G. K. Anderson, B. Kasapgil, and O. Ince, “Microbiological study of two-stage anaerobic digestion during start-up,” Water Research, vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 2383–2392, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. S. P. Barnes and J. Keller, “Cellulosic waste degradation by rumen-enhanced anaerobic digestion,” Water Science and Technology, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 155–162, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. P. C. Burrell, C. O'Sullivan, H. Song, W. P. Clarke, and L. L. Blackall, “Identification, detection, and spatial resolution of Clostridium populations responsible for cellulose degradation in a methanogenic landfill leachate bioreactor,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 70, no. 4, pp. 2414–2419, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. M. W. Fields, S. Mallik, and J. B. Russell, “Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 ferments ball-milled cellulose as fast as cellobiose until cellulose surface area is limiting,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 570–574, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. H. J. Gijzen, H. J. Lubberding, M. J. T. Gerhardus, and G. D. Vogels, “Contribution of rumen protozoa to fibre degradation and cellulase activity in vitro,” FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 35–43, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. Z.-H. Hu, G. Wang, and H.-Q. Yu, “Anaerobic degradation of cellulose by rumen microorganisms at various pH values,” Biochemical Engineering Journal, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 59–62, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. V. Kostyukovsky, T. Inamoto, T. Ando, Y. Nakai, and K. Ogimoto, “Degradation of hay by rumen fungi in artificial rumen (RUSITEC),” Journal of General and Applied Microbiology, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 83–86, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. T. L. Miller, E. Currenti, and M. J. Wolin, “Anaerobic bioconversion of cellulose by Ruminococcus albus, Methanobrevibacter smithii, and Methanosarcina barkeri,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 494–498, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. W. D. Murray, “Effects of cellobiose and glucose on cellulose hydrolysis by both growing and resting cells of Bacteroides cellulosolvens,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 1151–1154, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. R. Tammali, G. Seenayya, and G. Reddy, “Fermentation of cellulose to acetic acid by Clostridium lentocellum SG6: induction of sporulation and effect of buffering agent on acetic acid production,” Letters in Applied Microbiology, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 304–308, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. J. Chen and P. J. Weimer, “Competition among three predominant ruminal cellulolytic bacteria in the absence or presence of non-cellulolytic bacteria,” Microbiology, vol. 147, no. 1, pp. 21–30, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. G. Coleman, A. Taylor, and J. Baker, “Rumen entodiniomorphid protozoa,” in In Vitro Methods for Parasite Cultivation, A. E. R. Taylor and J. R. Baker, Eds., pp. 29–51, Academic Press, London, UK, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  121. T. L. Miller and M. J. Wolin, “Bioconversion of cellulose to acetate with pure cultures of Ruminococcus albus and a hydrogen-using acetogen,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 61, no. 11, pp. 3832–3835, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. P. J. Weimer and C. L. Odt, Cellulose Degradation by Ruminal Microbes: Physiological and Hydrolytic Diversity among Ruminal Cellulolytic Bacteria, vol. 618 of ACS Symposium Series, ACS Publications, 1995.
  123. M. I. van Dyke and A. J. McCarthy, “Molecular biological detection and characterization of Clostridium populations in municipal landfill sites,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 2049–2053, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. S. Suwannoppadol, G. Ho, and R. Cord-Ruwisch, “Distribution of methanogenic potential in fractions of turf grass used as inoculum for the start-up of thermophilic anaerobic digestion,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 117, no. 17, pp. 124–130, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. G. P. B. Marquez, W. T. Reichardt, R. V. Azanza, M. Klocke, and M. N. E. Montaño, “Thalassic biogas production from sea wrack biomass using different microbial seeds: cow manure, marine sediment and sea wrack-associated microflora,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 133, pp. 612–617, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  126. T. Forster-Carneiro, M. Pérez, and L. I. Romero, “Influence of total solid and inoculum contents on performance of anaerobic reactors treating food waste,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 99, no. 15, pp. 6994–7002, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. E. Elbeshbishy, G. Nakhla, and H. Hafez, “Biochemical methane potential (BMP) of food waste and primary sludge: influence of inoculum pre-incubation and inoculum source,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 110, pp. 18–25, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. G. K. Kafle, S. H. Kim, and K. I. Sung, “Ensiling of fish industry waste for biogas production: a lab scale evaluation of biochemical methane potential (BMP) and kinetics,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 127, pp. 326–336, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  129. L. Yan, Y. Gao, Y. Wang et al., “Diversity of a mesophilic lignocellulolytic microbial consortium which is useful for enhancement of biogas production,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 111, pp. 49–54, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. L. Regueiro, P. Veiga, M. Figueroa et al., “Relationship between microbial activity and microbial community structure in six full-scale anaerobic digesters,” Microbiological Research, vol. 167, no. 10, pp. 581–589, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  131. Q. Zhang, J. He, M. Tian et al., “Enhancement of methane production from cassava residues by biological pretreatment using a constructed microbial consortium,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 102, no. 19, pp. 8899–8906, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. J. L. Sanz and T. Köchling, “Molecular biology techniques used in wastewater treatment: an overview,” Process Biochemistry, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 119–133, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  133. T. M. Lapara, C. H. Nakatsu, L. Pantea, and J. E. Alleman, “Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial communities in mesophilic and thermophilic bioreactors treating pharmaceutical wastewater,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 66, no. 9, pp. 3951–3959, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. P. Silvey, P. C. Pullammanappallil, L. Blackall, and P. Nichols, “Microbial ecology of the leach bed anaerobic digestion of unsorted municipal solid waste,” Water Science and Technology, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 9–16, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. T. Nakagawa, S. Sato, Y. Yamamoto, and M. Fukui, “Successive changes in community structure of an ethylbenzene-degrading sulfate-reducing consortium,” Water Research, vol. 36, no. 11, pp. 2813–2823, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. Y. Ueno, S. Haruta, M. Ishii, and Y. Igarashi, “Changes in product formation and bacterial community by dilution rate on carbohydrate fermentation by methanogenic microflora in continuous flow stirred tank reactor,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 57, no. 1-2, pp. 65–73, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. M. A. Pereira, K. Roest, A. J. M. Stams, M. Mota, M. Alves, and A. D. L. Akkermans, “Molecular monitoring of microbial diversity in expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors treating oleic acid,” FEMS Microbiology Ecology, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 95–103, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. T. Narihiro, T. Abe, Y. Yamanaka, and A. Hiraishi, “Microbial population dynamics during fed-batch operation of commercially available garbage composters,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 488–495, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. C. Delbès, R. Moletta, and J.-J. Godon, “Bacterial and archaeal 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA dynamics during an acetate crisis in an anaerobic digestor ecosystem,” FEMS Microbiology Ecology, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 19–26, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  140. T. P. Curtis and N. G. Craine, “The comparison of the diversity of activated sludge plants,” Water Science and Technology, vol. 37, no. 4-5, pp. 71–78, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  141. L. Raskin, L. K. Poulsen, D. R. Noguera, B. E. Rittmann, and D. A. Stahl, “Quantification of methanogenic groups in anaerobic biological reactors by oligonucleotide probe hybridization,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 1241–1248, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. L. Raskin, J. M. Stromley, B. E. Rittmann, and D. A. Stahl, “Group-specific 16S rRNA hybridization probes to describe natural communities of methanogens,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 1232–1240, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. P. L. Hulshoff, The Phenomenon of Granulation of Anaerobic Sludge, Landbouwuniversiteit te Wageningen, 1989.
  144. L. W. Hulshoff Pol, S. I. de Castro Lopes, G. Lettinga, and P. N. L. Lens, “Anaerobic sludge granulation,” Water Research, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 1376–1389, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. Y. Liu, H.-L. Xu, S.-F. Yang, and J.-H. Tay, “Mechanisms and models for anaerobic granulation in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor,” Water Research, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 661–673, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. J. E. Schmidt and B. K. Ahring, “Granular sludge formation in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 49, pp. 229–246, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. H. J. M. Harmsen, H. M. P. Kengen, A. D. L. Akkermans, A. J. M. Stams, and W. M. De Vos, “Detection and localization of syntrophic propionate-oxidizing bacteria in granular sludge by in situ hybridization using 16S rRNA-based oligonucleotide probes,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 1656–1663, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. Y. Sekiguchi, Y. Kamagata, K. Nakamura, A. Ohashi, and H. Harada, “Fluorescence in situ hybridization using 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotides reveals localization of methanogens and selected uncultured bacteria in mesophilic and thermophilic sludge granules,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 1280–1288, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. C. M. Santegoeds, L. R. Damgaard, G. Hesselink et al., “Distribution of sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria in anaerobic aggregates determined by microsensor and molecular analyses,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 65, no. 10, pp. 4618–4629, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. G. Gonzalez-Gil, P. N. L. Lens, A. Van Aelst, H. Van As, A. I. Versprille, and G. Lettinga, “Cluster structure of anaerobic aggregates of an expanded granular sludge bed reactor,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 67, no. 8, pp. 3683–3692, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  151. S. Rocheleau, C. W. Greer, J. R. Lawrence, C. Cantin, L. Laramée, and S. R. Guiot, “Differentiation of Methanosaeta concilii and Methanosarcina barkeri in anaerobic mesophilic granular sludge by fluorescent in situ hybridization and confocal scanning laser microscopy,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 2222–2229, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  152. E. Díaz, R. Amils, and J. L. Sanz, “Molecular ecology of anaerobic granular sludge grown at different conditions,” Water Science and Technology, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 57–64, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  153. Y. Saiki, C. Iwabuchi, A. Katami, and Y. Kitagawa, “Microbial analyses by fluorescence in situ hybridization of well-settled granular sludge in brewery wastewater treatment plants,” Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, vol. 93, no. 6, pp. 601–606, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  154. B. Calli, B. Mertoglu, N. Tas, B. Inanc, O. Yenigun, and I. Ozturk, “Investigation of variations in microbial diversity in anaerobic reactors treating landfill leachate,” Water Science and Technology, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 105–112, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  155. K. Roest, H. G. H. J. Heilig, H. Smidt, W. M. De Vos, A. J. M. Stams, and A. D. L. Akkermans, “Community analysis of a full-scale anaerobic bioreactor treating paper mill wastewater,” Systematic and Applied Microbiology, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 175–185, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  156. S. Rosenberger, R. Witzig, W. Manz, U. Szewzyk, and M. Kraume, “Operation of different membrane bioreactors: experimental results and physiological state of the micro-organisms,” Water Science and Technology, vol. 41, no. 10-11, pp. 269–277, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  157. M. Wagner, M. Hornt, and H. Daims, “Fluorescence in situ hybridisation for the identification and characterisation of prokaryotes,” Current Opinion in Microbiology, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 302–309, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. L. M. Steinberg and J. M. Regan, “Response of lab-scale methanogenic reactors inoculated from different sources to organic loading rate shocks,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 102, no. 19, pp. 8790–8798, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. R. C. van Leerdam, F. A. M. de Bok, M. Bonilla-Salinas et al., “Methanethiol degradation in anaerobic bioreactors at elevated pH (≥8): reactor performance and microbial community analysis,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 99, no. 18, pp. 8967–8973, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  160. Y.-Q. Tang, T. Matsui, S. Morimura, X.-L. Wu, and K. Kida, “Effect of temperature on microbial community of a glucose-degrading methanogenic consortium under hyperthermophilic chemostat cultivation,” Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, vol. 106, no. 2, pp. 180–187, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  161. W. Xing, Y. Zhao, and J.-E. Zuo, “Microbial activity and community structure in a lake sediment used for psychrophilic anaerobic wastewater treatment,” Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 109, no. 5, pp. 1829–1837, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  162. Z.-B. Yue, J. Wang, X.-M. Liu, and H.-Q. Yu, “Comparison of rumen microorganism and digester sludge dominated anaerobic digestion processes for aquatic plants,” Renewable Energy, vol. 46, pp. 255–258, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  163. M. Alzate, R. Muñoz, F. Rogalla, F. Fdz-Polanco, and S. Pérez-Elvira, “Biochemical methane potential of microalgae: influence of substrate to inoculum ratio, biomass concentration and pretreatment,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 123, pp. 488–494, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  164. S. Sunarso, S. Johari, and I. N. Widiasa, “The effect of feed to inoculums ratio on biogas production rate from cattle manure using rumen fluid as inoculums,” International Journal of Waste Resources, vol. 2, pp. 1–4, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  165. A. Boulanger, E. Pinet, M. Bouix, T. Bouchez, and A. A. Mansour, “Effect of inoculum to substrate ratio (I/S) on municipal solid waste anaerobic degradation kinetics and potential,” Waste Management, vol. 32, no. 12, pp. 2258–2265, 2012. View at Google Scholar