Table 4: Various inocula along various substrates and their potential for biogas production.

InoculaPretreatmentSubstrate / ratioBiogas productionMethane productionReference

Cow manureNGSea wrack (dislodged sea grasses and sea weeds)NG  mL396.9 mLCH4 g−1 (volatile solid)[125]

Marine sedimentsNGSea wrackNG  mL[125]

Sea wrack associated microfloraNGSea wrackNG  mL[125]

Municipal SludgeNGFood wasteNGNG0.49 L CH4/g VS. [126]

Municipal wastewater sludgeFood waste1
0.5
0.25
NG660 mL CH4/g VSSsub
790 mL CH4/g VSSsub
490 mL CH4/g VSSsub
[127]

Inocula from food wasteFood waste1
0.5
0.25
NG1000 mL CH4/g VSSsub
940 mL CH4/g VSSsub
1400 mL CH4/g VSSsub
[127]

Inocola from WWTPPreincubated  Primary
 sludge
0.5
1
2
4
NG241 mL CH4/g VSSsub
221 mL CH4/g VSSsub
235 mL CH4/g VSSsub
273 mL CH4/g VSSsub
[127]
Nonincubated0.5
1
2
4
283 mL CH4/g VSSSub
231 mL CH4/g VSSSub
230 mL CH4/g VSSSub
235 mL CH4/g VSSSub

Digester sludgeNGBulrushNGNG464.3 g COD/g total solids [162]

Digester sludgeSteam explosionBulrushNGNG14.5% [162]

Rumen fluidNGBulrushNGNG362.8 g COD/g TS [162]

Rumen fluidSteam ExplosionBulrushNGNG18.5%[162]

Mesophilic anaerobic digesterEnsilingFish wasteNG671–763 mL/g VS441–482 mL/g VS[128]

Thermophilic anaerobic sludgeMixing with distillery wastewaterCassava residuesNGNG259.46 mL/g VS [131]

Mesophilic activated sludgeBiological
thermal
ultrasound
Microalgae0.5Negligible
46–62%
6–24%
NG [163]

Mesophilic activated sludgeMicroalgae0.5188–395 mLNG [163]

Rumen fluidsNGCattle manure17.64
23.51
35.27
70.54
NG191 mL/g VS
162 mL/g VS
144 mL/g VS
112 mL/g VS
[164]

Sludge digesterNGMunicipal solid waste2 g VMinoculum/
g VMwaste
NG150 mL g DM−1 [165]