Table 1: Summary of the literatures that reported the use of LIF antagonist in preventing implantation in different models. So far, only one study has been performed on human uterine tissues in-vitro which investigated this effect.

AuthorsAntagonistRoute of administrationDetectable in uterine tissueModelEffects

Aschenbach et al. (2013) [104]PEGLAIntramuscular and subcutaneousYes
luminal and glandular epithelia; endometrial lysates (intramuscular administration)
Cynomolgus monkeysReduced endometrial STAT3 protein phosphorylation in vivo and in vitro Inhibited LIF induced expression of cochlin, IGF-BP 3, VEGF A, and COX-2 in endometrial explants in vitro

Menkhorst et al. (2011) [103]PEGLAVaginalYes
(no systemic side effects)
MiceBlocked implantation

White et al. (2007) [102]LIF antagonist (LA)Intraperitoneal plus continuous administration via miniosmotic pumpMiceBlocked implantation
Reduced STAT3 phosphorylation
in luminal epithelial cells
PEGLAIntraperitonealYes; uterine luminal epithelium (no systemic side effects)MiceInhibited implantation
Reduced STAT3 phosphorylation
in luminal epithelial cells

Lalitkumar et al. (2013) [105]PEGLAIn-vitro study on timed human endometrial biopsy tissueYesHumanReduced embryo attachment rate to endometrium
Decreased LIF mRNA and protein in endometrium
Inhibition of embryonic LIF triggered endometrial cell apoptosis
Downregulation in AKT activation and increase of caspase-3 activation in blastocysts

Sengupta et al. (2006) [101]Anti-LIF monoclonal AbIntrauterineYesRhesus MonkeySignificant decline in pregnancy outcome