The Scientific World Journal / 2014 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Methods, Diagnostic Criteria, Cutoff Points, and Prevalence of Sarcopenia among Older People

Table 1

Diagnostic criteria and prevalence of sarcopenia according to gender estimated by Dual-X-ray-absorptiometry (DXA) method ().

Authors, yCountryStudy design ()Age (y)Diagnostic criteriaPrevalence (%)
Index Description and reference
population
Cutoff points
Male
(kg/m2)
Female
(kg/m2)
Male
(%)
Female
(%)

1Baumgartner et al. 1998 [4]USACross-sectional
Population-based study
(808)
>60AMMI−2 SD below gender-specific mean of young
adults from Rosseta study (18–40 y)
7.265.4528.533.9

2 Melton III et al. 2000 [16]USACross-sectional
Population-based study
(300)
(community-dwelling)
≥60TSMI−2 SD below gender-specific mean of young
adults from Rochester (20–50 y)
6.774.5111.37.3
AMMI−2 SD below gender-specific mean of young
adults from Rosseta study (18–40 y)
7.265.455.34.6

3 Tankó et al. 2002 [17]DenmarkCross-sectional
(754 healthy women)
>60AMMI−2 SD below the normal sex-specific means for
young persons of Danish population (19–39 y)
5.4012.3

4 Iannuzzi-Sucich et al. 2002 [18]USACross-sectional
Community-dwelling
(337)
≥65AMMI−2 SD below gender-specific mean of young
adults from Rosseta study (18–40 y)
7.265.4526.822.6
TSMI−2 SD below gender-specific mean of young
adults from Rochester (18–40 y)
6.774.5111.31.5

5 Kenny et al. 2003 [19]USACross-sectional
Women users ERT
(189)
>59AMMI−2 SD below gender-specific mean of young
adults from Rosseta study (18–40 y)
5.4523.8

6 Gillette-Guyonnet et al. 2003 [20]FranceCohort
EPIDOS
(1.321 women)
75–80AMMI−2 SD below gender-specific mean of young
adults from Rosseta study (18–40 y)
5.458.9

7Visser et al. 2003 [21]AmsterdamCohort
LASA
(1.008)
55–85MMALowest sex-specific 15th percentile of the
cohort (loss muscle mass greater than 3%)
15.7

8 Newman et al. 2003 [12]USACohort
(2.984)
Health ABC Study
70–79AMMI<20th percentile sex-specific distribution7.235.6714.112.4
AMMIR<20th percentile sex-specific residuals
distribution adjusted for fat mass and height
−2.29−1.7320.024.0

9 Lau et al. 2005 [22]ChinaCross-sectional
(527)
Community-dwelling
>70AMMI−2 SD below gender-specific mean of Chinese
young adults (20–40 y)
<5.72<4.8212.37.2
TSMI−2 SD below gender-specific mean of Chinese
young adults (20–40 y)
9.98.523.436.7

10 Delmonico et al. 2007 [23]USACohort
(2.976)
Health ABC Study
70–79AMMI<20th percentile sex-specific distribution7.255.6720.320.2
AMMIR<20th percentile sex-specific residuals
distribution adjusted for fat mass and height
20.220.3

11Lee et al. 2008 [24]ChinaCross-sectional
(4.000)
Community-dwelling
≥65AMMI−2 SD below gender-specific mean of Chinese
young adults (20–40 y)
7.196.057.16.1

12Kim et al. 2010 [25]KoreaKSOS
(526)
Community-dwelling
≥60AMMI−2 SD below gender-specific mean of Korean
young adults (20–39 y)
6.584.596.34.1

13Woo et al. 2009 [26]ChinaCohort
(3.153)
Community-dwelling
≥65AMMI−2 SD below gender-specific mean of Chinese
young adults (20–40 y)
<7.4<6.42.22.6

14 Rolland et al. 2009 [27]FranceCohort/ EPIDOS
(1.308)
Community-dwelling women
≥75AMMI−2 SD below gender-specific mean of young
adults from Rosseta study (18–40 y)
5.456.8

15 Sanada et al. 2010 [28]JapanCross-sectional
1488
Community-dwelling
70–85AMMIClass 1: −1 to 2 SD below gender-specific
mean of Japanese young adults (18–40 y)
7.776.126.76.3
Class 2: −2 SD below gender-specific mean
of Japanese young adults (18–40 y)
6.875.4656.733.6

16 Wen et al. 2011 [29]ChinaCross-sectional
(72)
Community-dwelling
60–69AMMI−2 SD below gender-specific mean of Chinese
young adults (20–40 y)
<5.85<4.230.00.0
AMMIR<20th percentile sex-specific residuals
distribution adjusted for fat mass and height
33.325.6

17 Kim et al. 2012 [30] Korea Cross-sectional
KNHANES IV (2008-2009)
2.332
≥65 AMMIClass 1: −1 to 2 SD below gender-specific
mean of Korean young adults (20–39 y)
7.505.3830.810.2
Class 2: −2 SD below gender-specific mean
of Korean young adults (20–39 y)
6.584.5912.40.1
AMMIRClass 1: −1 to 2 SD below gender-specific mean
of Korean young adults (20–39 y)
32.2%25.6%29.530.3
Class 2: −2 SD below gender-specific mean of Korean young
adults (20–39 y)
29.1%23.0%9.711.8

18 Domiciano et al. 2013 [31]BrazilCross-sectional
(611 women community-dwelling)
≥65AMMI−2 SD below gender-specific mean of young adults from Rosseta study (18–40 y)5.53.7
AMMIR<20th percentile sex-specific residuals
distribution adjusted for fat mass and height
−1.4519.9

AMMI: appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (appendicular skeletal muscle mass/height2).
TSMI: total skeletal muscle mass index (total skeletal muscle mass/height2).
AMMIR = appendicular skeletal muscle mass index: regression among appendicular skeletal muscle mass. Height and body fat (residuals method).
Residuals method.
EPIDOS: Epidemiologie de l’Osteoporose Study.
LASA: longitudinal aging study Amsterdam.
Health ABC Study: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study.
KSOS: Korean Sarcopenic Obesity Study.
KNHANES IV: Fourth Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys.

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