−2 SD below gender-specific mean of young adults from Rosseta study (18–40 y)
<20th percentile sex-specific residuals distribution adjusted for fat mass and height
AMMI: appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (appendicular skeletal muscle mass/height2). TSMI: total skeletal muscle mass index (total skeletal muscle mass/height2). AMMIR = appendicular skeletal muscle mass index: regression among appendicular skeletal muscle mass. Height and body fat (residuals method). †Residuals method. EPIDOS: Epidemiologie de l’Osteoporose Study. LASA: longitudinal aging study Amsterdam. Health ABC Study: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. KSOS: Korean Sarcopenic Obesity Study. KNHANES IV: Fourth Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys.
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